Alliums for August: plant perennial leeks, eat onion greens, sort potato onions again, move bulb onions into cooler storage

 

Perennial leeks.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Plant perennial leeks (Oepri, Perlzwiebel)

These will be dry bulbs at this point of the year and can be re-spaced between August and October into a larger planting for next year.

August onion harvests

In cooler climates (if the quality is still good) the tops/greens/leaves of Egyptian onions and perennial leeks can be cut and used fresh. The larger bulbils of Egyptian onions and perennial leeks can be used in mixed pickles. Garlic and bulb onions can be eaten from storage.

Egyptian walking onions.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Sort potato onions twice in August

Early August: at the third sorting of the potato onions, I separate the clusters, trim the tops and sort by size. Sorting by size is not essential, but I do it to help me figure out what to save for planting and what to eat or use as seed (for planting). We sort smalls (<1.5”), larges (1.5-2.0”) and eaters (>2.0”). And compost material. The rack space required after this stage is only a third of what it was before that.

At the end of August I sort through again, and make initial plans about what to do with surplus planting stock (sell, give to friends). At the end of September I make the decision about how much to keep back for planting. I used to put the onions into net bags for storage, but I found I get better results if I just leave them in a single layer on the racks. The small ones stay there till late January, through freezing conditions (or more accurately, alternating freezing and thawing conditions). They can appear to be frozen solid, but are in fine condition. Ideal conditions are 32-40F, 60-70% humidity, with good ventilation. Layers should not be more than 4” deep.

Yellow potato onions.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Save seed-stock potato onions

Seed saving is a natural part of growing potato onions. We started in 2000 with 0.5 pound of seed stock, planted late in the spring. We harvested only 1.5#, but we continued, adding in more seed-stock, and planted 46# for 2003, (90’ large, 180’ small). At that point I was dividing into 3 planting sizes: small (<1”, 30-60 bulbs/pound); medium (1-1.5”, 16-22 bulbs/pound); and larges (>1.5”, 7-8 bulbs/pound). For 2004, I planned to plant large:small in a 1:2 ratio by area, to get enough small and medium onions to plant the same area the next year, and to get lots to eat as well. But the 2003 harvest had a high amount of large onions, and I decided to plant them all, increasing to 540’. We expanded to plant 720’, in a large:small ratio of 1:3 by area (i.e. 180’ large, 540’ small). This gives us enough smalls to plant for the next year, and plenty of larges and eaters. Someone growing for maximum seed-stock would probably want to plant a higher ratio of large ones, in order to get more smalls.

Instead of weighing all the onions, I now know I need to save 3 racks (probably 65#, 450 bulbs) of larges (1.5-2.0”) and 5 racks (probably 75#, 2100 bulbs) of smalls (<1.5”) for planting next year’s crop. This allows a margin for decay. The small ones really are very stable, it’s the larger ones that are more prone to sprouting, so I pull those out whenever I pass by.

Australian Brown storage onion.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Move bulb onions into cooler storage

  • In July I mentioned that bulb onions can safely be stored at 60°F-90°F (16°C-32°C) if they have not been refrigerated at all. This applies only to fully cured onions with dry necks. (Green onions need refrigeration at 32°F-41°F (0-5°C), 95-100% humidity.)
  • For cured dormant onions it is very important to avoid the 45°F-55°F (7°C-13°C) range, because that’s when they sprout.
  • For storage, onions and garlic do best with a humidity of 60%-70%. Refrigerators are usually more humid than ideal. If you have a barn with the right temperatures, that will work better for long-term storage.
  • In our climate, with a long period in the danger zone temperatures, we keep alliums in the warmer storage range in a barn, shed or basement until ambient temperatures drop close to 55ºF, and then move them to a refrigerated cooler at 32°F -41°F (0-5°C) 95-100% humidity.
  • Do not freeze: onions get chill injury at 31°F (-0.5°C)
  • If at all possible, do not store onions with fruits, including squash, as these exude ethylene which promotes sprouting.

More reading

Other southern onion growers might like to read this publication by Dr Joe Masabni of Texas AgriLife Extension, called simply Onion

Walla Walla large non-storage onion.
photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Collect ramp seeds

If you have been wild-crafting ramps (more on that in March), this is time to pay the piper. Collect seed and scatter it over the patches you dug from. Or collect seed to grow in woodlands at home – without of course, taking too many away from a place they could grow naturally. See the article in Modern Farmer. The seeds scattered in zones 3-7 in early fall, take 6 to 18 months to germinate, and the plants take 5-7 years to grow to harvestable size. Thus it’s easy to see how wild ramps have been seriously over-harvested.

Buy seeds year-round and bulblets in late winter at rampfarm.com and mountaingardensherbs.com.

Read more in Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and Other Woodland Medicinals by W. Scott Person and Jeanine Davis of North Carolina.

Year-Round Hoophouse book update, Nematodes in hoophouse cucumbers, Organic Broadcaster.

Removing old hoophouse plastic. Photo Wren Vile

I just completed another step on the way to getting my new book, The Year-Round Hoophouse, published. I proofread aver 300 pages of text over the course of five very intensive focused days. In the next four days I checked all the photos, including the color section. I replaced a few photos that didn’t come out clearly, fixed a couple of glitches (that’s what proofreading is for!) And I added up to 17 more photos wherever there was enough space at the ends of chapters. The index is being prepared, and another proofreader is also carefully working through the text.

Then the corrected pre-press proof will be prepared by early August, and we’ll be on track for the November 20 publication date, with the books coming off-press in mid-October and heading to the stores. ISBN 978-0-86571-863-0.

The finished paperback book will be 288 pages, 8″ x 10″ (20 x 25 cm) for $29.99 (US or Canadian). It will also be available in digital formats.


Cucumber roots with nematodes (see circles).
Photo Pam Dawling

When we were clearing our early bush cucumbers from the hoophouse a couple of weeks ago, I found four plants at the east end of the bed with nematodes. I’ve written before about our struggles with root knot nematodes in our hoophouse, and indeed, you can read everything I know about nematodes in the Year-Round Hoophouse.

Here is another photo of the lumpy roots, with circles outlining the nematode lumps.

A different cucumber root with nematode lumps (see circles).
Photo Pam Dawling


The July/August Organic Broadcaster is out. The first article is about a poultry system compatible with regenerative agriculture. Regenerative Agriculture is one of the sustainable agriculture movements that are springing up as an alternative to USDA Organic, which now allows CAFOs, hydroponics and other unhealthy, non-sustainable methods. The regenerative poultry system includes trees for shade, ranging paddocks where the poultry are rotated, and night shelter. The aim of the author, Reginaldo Haslett-Marroquin, is a fully regenerative supply chain, starting with what kinds of grains they feed the poultry and how they are grown. Farmers can reach the organizers of Regeneration Midwest by emailing [email protected].

The second article explains the consequences of USDA halting the Organic check-off as part of their program. The editorial introduces Organic 2051, a one-day conference (Feb 21, 2019) prior to the MOSES Conference, “to bring together leaders in the organic and sustainable farming community to chart the path forward for truly sustainable farming by the year 2050 and beyond, demonstrating our capacity to feed the world.”

Another article (by Matthew Kleinhenz) discusses biofertilizers and explores differences between an average yield increase which is sustained and throughout the field, and one that might lead to a similar average yield increase, but with a result that is widely fluctuating between one plant and the next, producing a few start yielders but fewer plants with an actual yield increase.

Bailey Webster writes about industrial hemp, an up and coming crop with mostly non-food uses, although the seeds are finding favor, touted as a “superfood”. Brittany Olsen writes about the MOSES farm mentorship program, Teresa Wiemerslage writes about the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Regulation and Laura Jessee Livingston writes about a new apprenticeship program training farm managers.

Carlos Valencia and his dog, Paco, live on a farm in rural Kansas. He has faced numerous issues with officials and vandals that have prevented him from achieving his farming goals. Photo submitted

Another article by Bailey Webster explores a shocking case that looks like racism in rural Kansas (although of course it could be almost anywhere). Kansas farmer Carlos Valencia, who is is black and Hispanic, began managing a farm in Norton, Kansas that was owned by Golden Duck LLC in 2007. He was working for equity in the farm, rather than for wages, with the goal of owning it himself one day. He planned to raise poultry, and had submitted documents to the Kansas Department of Health and Environment to get farm operating permits to raise geese on a commercial scale. The paperwork was taking a long time, and if he was to raise geese that year and earn his living, he needed to get goslings on the farm while they were available. Geese do not produce young year-round, only February-June. Fully expecting to get his permits (the previous farmers there had an industrial hog unit), he bought 20,000 goslings. This sounds like a huge number to me, but I understand from the article that this is a modest start. In June, disaster struck in the form of an unusually strong hail storm that killed 800 of Valencia’s young geese. He chose a common practice on poultry farms: incinerating them. The local authorities caught wind of it, and worried that the poultry had died of disease. The USDA and the state biopsied the dead birds to check for disease, and found that there was no disease present. Continue reading

BCS Berta Plow, Proofreading The Year-Round Hoophouse, Tomato Foliage Diseases

Our new equipment – a Berta rotary plow.
Photo Pam Dawling

In recent years we have mostly hand-shoveled the paths between our 90ft x 4ft raised beds. If we have two neighboring beds ready to prepare at the same time, we might use the hiller-furrower on our BCS 732 walk-behind tiller. But frankly that didn’t do as good a job as the old Troybilt hiller-furrower we used to have, and if you went off-course, there was no chance of a re-run to fix it. With the Troybilt you could fix a wiggle by steering hard on a re-run, but the BCS wouldn’t co-operate on that. So there was less incentive to use the BCS. We would measure and flag the bed, and have a person with a shovel at each end of each path, shoveling towards each other. Then we raked the bed, breaking up the big shovel-dollops.

Using the Berta rotary plow to make paths between our raised beds.
Photo Pam Dawling

Now we have a Berta Rotary Plow from Earth Tools BCS, and we are hopping with joy. It is easy to fit and unfit on our BCS, easy to use and does a lovely job. We flag the midline of the path, plow up one side of the path and back down the other. We get straighter paths, beds almost ready to use (no shovel-dollops!), and we save a lot of time, and don’t feel so tired!

A raised bed prepared with our Berta Rotary Plow, with some lettuce transplants under shadecloth.
Photo Pam Dawling


This week I am proofreading the Advance Proof of The Year-Round Hoophouse. A professional proofreader is also working through the advance proof at the same time, and the foreword and the endorsements are being written (or more likely, being thought about!).

So far, I have found a few inconsistencies to align. I guess I thought one thing when I wrote one chapter and something else a few months later when I wrote another chapter! I found a few tiny typos, even after so much careful checking here and during the professional copy-editing process. I found a few unclear bits, which I hope will now be clearer!

I relearned a few things I’d figured out for the book and then forgotten about! I impressed myself with seeing again all the information packed in there, from helpful tips to expansive over-views. I’m very much looking forward to having the book in my hands. Several more months yet. Publication date is November 20. New Society is taking pre-orders. When I’ve got some actual boxes of books I’ll update the Buy Now button here on my website and you can support-an-author and buy direct. I’ll sign the book for you!

Grow abundant produce year-round in any climate

Growing in hoophouses reduces the impact of increasingly unpredictable climate on crops, mitigates soil erosion, extends growing seasons, and strengthens regional food supply. The Year-Round Hoophouse teaches how to site, design, and build a hoophouse and successfully grow abundant produce all year in a range of climates.

Pam Dawling has been farming and providing training in sustainable vegetable production in a large variety of climates for over 40 years, 14 of which have been hoophouse growing. Pam’s first book is the best-selling Sustainable Market Farming: Intensive Vegetable Production on a Few Acres.

PB 9780-086571863-0/ 8 x 10”/ 288 pages/$ 29.99/Available November 2018

Pre-order at www.newsociety.com before November 1 and receive a 20% discount.


Striped German tomato in our hoophouse. Note the lower leaves have been removed to reduce diseases.
Photo Alexis Yamashita

At the end of July or the first week of August we will pull up our hoophouse tomatoes and sow some soy as a cover crop until we are ready to prep the beds for winter greens. Our outdoor tomatoes are producing now, and as their yields increase, we’ll have no regrets about pulling up the aging hoophouse plants. We like to grow some heirlooms in there, and they are (in general) notorious for foliar diseases. I know some are disease-resistant, but we don’t only grow those ones! We did better this year at removing any lower leaves touching the ground, to dissuade any transfer of diseases from the soil.

Early in the season we had aphids and sooty mold, but ladybugs sorted out that problem. More recently we have had a little Early Blight, some Septoria leaf spot, and a sporadic issue that has concentrations of leaves with small silvery spots (dead leaf tissue). These are mostly located below webs of zipper spiders. Is it a disease, or the result of spider poop or dead prey detritus?

Zipper spider on a hoophouse tomato.
Photo Pam Dawling

Alliums for July: harvest minor alliums, finish harvesting bulb onions, snip and sort garlic and bulb onions.

Siberian garlic.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Allium planting in July

In Virginia, July is not a big month for planting alliums. If you have perennial leeks or Egyptian onions you could if necessary divide clumps and replant them. But I would postpone doing this if I could and replant dry bulbs in August, or divide newly re-sprouting clumps in September.

Allium harvesting in July

In June I listed dates of our usual allium harvests for that month. Some of the minor allium crops (shallots, leaves of perennial alliums) can be harvested in July, but some, like the tiny, purple shallot-like L’itoi perennial onion (Allium cepa var. aggregatum ) die back in June and are sending up new green shoots by early July, so you’ll have to wait for those to be big enough to harvest. During dormancy you could divide the clumps and replant. Harvests of full-sized bulb onions and cipollini (small bulb onions) continue through July.

Bulb onions

I discovered our bulb onion (A. cepa var. cepa) harvest dates had ranged more widely than the 6/15-6/30 I reported last month. In the years 2008-2012, we harvested bulb onions 6/4–7/26, depending on the variety and the weather. In October I’ll write more about choosing onion varieties for your area.

Bulb onions curing on a rack.
Photo Wren Vile

Curing bulb onions

Some books recommend curing in the outdoor sun. These books are written further north or further south! This doesn’t work in our climate, where we need to provide partial shade, moderate temperatures, and good air flow (and no rain). Further north, temperatures are lower, and onions do not bake during outdoor curing. Further south (in Georgia for instance) onions mature much earlier in the year (they have been growing over the winter). The sun is not yet too intense or the humidity too high, and they can cure onions in the field there.

Handle onions gently – many rots are the result of poor handling post-harvest. Spread in a single layer in a warm dry place, and check every few days. The ideal conditions are 85ºF-90ºF (27ºC-32ºC) with constant air movement, no direct strong sunlight. We use racks in a barn, with fans to keep the air moving.

Trimming, sorting & storing bulb onions

Trimming should begin about two weeks after you hung the onions to cure. Test them by feeling maybe a dozen necks to see if they are ready. Pinch the necks gently just above the bulb, and then rub your thumb and forefinger together. They are ready for trimming if the majority of the necks feel dry and papery. The necks should not feel slippery or moist. If more than one or two still feel damp, but not slippery, wait a couple of days before testing again. Do not wait more than three weeks after harvest to get the onions in storage. The longer you leave the onions hanging, the more rot you will have to deal with.

To trim get a good pair of scissors, and a glove on your scissor hand to prevent blisters. Trim the necks off about ½” (1 cm) from the bulb, and trim all the roots off.

When trimming, sort the onions into three categories. Onions with wet necks or soft spots are for immediate use at home. Bulbs that feel firm and have dry necks are storage bulbs, and should be trimmed and put into mesh bags, which we store lying flat on shelves in our basement. Most onions store reasona­bly well if spread in a layer less than 4″ deep or hung from the ceiling in small mesh bags. Avoid large bags where the weight of the onions will crush the ones at the bottom. Ensure good air circulation.

The third category is for bulbs that aren’t obviously use first, but for some reason might not store for months. Maybe the necks have a spongy feeling, or the skin is split, or the necks slip a little bit. Label these onions “Use Soon,” trim them into mesh bags and put them in the basement like the storage onions.

Onions can be stored at 60ºF-90°F (16ºC-32°C) if they have never been refrigerated. It is important to avoid the 45ºF-55°F (7ºC-13°C) range, because that’s when they sprout. We have limited refrigerated storage, so we keep alliums in the warmer storage range until room temperatures drop into the danger zone, by which time there is space in the cooler. More about onion storage in August.

Onion harvest
Photo by Raddysh Acorn

Here’s information from the Roxbury Farm Harvest Manual (upstate New York) – a quite different story from Virginia:

Storage onions

Pull the onions out of the ground, clean off some damaged leaf parts, taking care not to remove too many of the outer layers. Cut off the tops immediately, 2-4″ (5-10 cm) above the crown.  If for long-term storage, bring the onions to the greenhouse for curing. Cover the greenhouse with 80% shade cloth to protect onions from sunscald.

As soon as the necks are sufficiently dried up (you can no longer roll any stems between your fingers and the stem tissue feels like paper), and the leaves easily crumble off, give them a superficial cleaning, and move the onions into the barn (and not in the cooler due to high moisture levels). Store at 32ºF-41°F (0-5°C) 65-70% humidity.

Green bulb onions, harvest and cleaning

Pull the 3-4″ diameter onions out, before any leaves die, by grabbing the plants as low as possible on the stem to avoid crushing the green stems. Place the onions on the top of the bed all facing the same way. Clean off the outer leaves around the bulb to leave a clean white bulb. Bunch 2-4 onions together with twisties. Cut the excess length off the leaves so the bunch fits lengthwise in the box. Pick up the finished bunches, and place them in the box.

Washing onions would shorten their storage life. Remove most of the dirt in the field. Bunched fresh onions look much nicer when clean. Spray off the onions with a hose but do not dump them into a washing tub. Pack in closed containers for storage longer than a week. Store at 32-41°F (0-5°C), 95-100% humidity.

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Harvest minor alliums

Cipollini (A. cepa var. cepa) will be ready to harvest from spring transplants here in the first half of July, if they weren’t ready in late June. We sow those in plug flats 1/25 and transplant 3/21. Read more about cipollini in the June post. We love Red Marble, which stores really well. Purplette disappointed us – it doesn’t store well.

French Red shallots.
Photo Raddysh Acorn

Shallots (A. cepa var. aggregatum) grown from seed started in late January and transplanted in March will mature here 7/4 -7/30, 4-8 weeks later than those grown from replanted bulbs (planted in October). We started with a packet of seeds, replanting all we grew for several years. We got lots of winter-kill trying to over-winter the bulbs in the ground. To save bulbs for replanting in early spring, refrigerate them. And accept a later harvest than the 6/10 of fall-planted bulbs.

Top-setting onions (aka Egyptian onions, tree onions, walking onions) produce tiny red-purple bulbs in the umbel instead of flowers, maturing in September. They were previously named Allium cepa var. proliferum. According to Wikipedia, they are now known to be a hybrid of A. cepa and A. fistulosum. The larger bulbils can be harvested in July, and used to make mixed pickles.

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Other Allium tasks for July

Trimming garlic stems (blue nail polish optional!).
Photo by Brittany Lewis

Snipping, Sorting and Storing Garlic – see the link to my previous blogpost, where I spelled out these tasks, including setting up, snipping and sorting into three categories for replanting, for storing and for using soon. Garlic can be stored in the same high temperature range as bulb onions, provided it has never dropped into the sprouting temperature range of 40-55°F (5-13°C)

Sort potato onions – see the first step of this process described in my June post and the harvesting described in my May post. We made slatted racks 5′ by 2.5′ (150 x 75 cm) which stack on each other leaving space for air. Curing is important for quality and long-term storage. Space the bulbs loosely on the racks to provide good air circulation. If humidity is high, use fans, dehumidifiers or an air conditioned room, to improve drying. Curing takes 2 to 4 weeks.

I aim to sort through our potato onions once a month, starting a few weeks after harvest.

7/10-7/15: This could be the second sorting for fall-planted potato onions, the first sorting for late winter planted ones. Keep the clusters together, as breaking them apart stimulates sprouting. Wait till the third sorting, in early August, to snip off tops, separate the clusters, sort by size and decide how many to save for replanting. I’ll tell you about that next month.

Remove any rotting onions for immediate use or composting. Start sorting with the largest ones, in case you run out of time. Remove all that are bigger than 2″ (5 cm), bag, weigh, record and label. If you are on a fast track to increase your crop, refrigerate all the large onions at this time, carefully labeled so they don’t get eaten, to plant in September. Refrigerate or plant them, or eat them, the large ones won’t keep long.

Potato onions in early spring, after they have divided into a cluster.
Photo by Kathryn Simmons

Harvesting squash and cucumbers, Starting Seeds in Hot Weather, ATTRA tutorials

Gentry squash in our hoophouse.
Photo Alexis Yamashita

 Harvesting squash and cucumbers

The weather has heated up, the squash and cucumbers are growing well, and the combination leads to irritation from prickly leaves on sweaty skin. Some people get quite a rash from harvesting these crops, others just get a short-term itchiness that is cured by rinsing arms and hands in cool water. We’ve come up with a few helpful techniques.

Harvesting Zephyr summer squash, wearing a long-sleeved shirt.
Photo by Brittany Lewis

The first is fairly obvious: wear long sleeves for this task. Keep a suitable cotton shirt handy (near the harvest knives) to slip on before you start. But sometimes it just feels too hot. Gauntlets are another option. We have two pairs of these white plastic sleeves with elasticated ends. We keep one in the hoophouse, clothes-pinned to the rack by the logbook

Using plastic gauntlets or protective sleeves avoids getting skin irritations while harvesting squash.
Photo by Pam Dawling

I don’t know where we got these. It’s very quick to slip them on and off again, keeping the “enclosed” time to a minimum. They are just tubes, they don’t have gloves attached like the ones I used to wear when I kept bees. They are sold as “protective sleeves”, and they look like these or these (see the photo above).

Probably cutting sleeves off an old shirt and hemming and threading elastic in the top end would work.

For cucumbers, we have introduced the use of a pole to rummage in the vines, seeking mature cukes. This is a surprising improvement over using hands or feet to find the fruits. It does little damage, and you can easily feel when you hit a cucumber. The small amount of  time it takes to pop the cucumber off the vine is not long enough for skin to get irritated (for most of us). Also, cucumber vines are closer to the ground than squash vines and leaves, and so your arms don’t get scratched.

Using a pole to locate cucumbers among the vines.
Photo Pam Dawling


Starting Seeds in Hot Weather

A well-germinated bed of young carrots.
photo by Kathryn Simmons

My blogpost on this topic has been published on the Mother Earth News Organic Gardening blog. You can see it here. It is based on material in Sustainable Market Farming and in my new book The Year-Round Hoophouse. The post covers germination temperatures, soaking and pre-sprouting seeds.


 

ATTRA tutorials

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