Vegetable Garden Tips

 

Young Yukina Savoy plants.
Photo Ethan Hirsh

My virtual workshop on Asian Greens 

is available from Mother Earth News Fairs Online here.

The Food Independence Course Part Two  consists of eight video presentations, most of which come with pdf handouts. My contribution is Growing Asian Greens, and pairs nicely with the Guide to Asian Vegetables by Wendy Kiang-Spray, author of The Chinese Kitchen Garden: Growing Techniques and Family Recipes from a Classic Cuisine. Other topics include Dandelion Wine, Homemade Teas, Food Conversations, Passive Solar Greenhouse Design, Productive Growing from Home, and Growing Your Own Spices.

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Decoy Cabbage White Butterflies.
Photo Good Seed Co

Easy DIY Cabbage Butterfly Decoy!

The Good Seed Co blog posted this lovely idea for protecting brassicas from those white butterflies Pieris rapae. It’s based on the discovery that the butterfly is territorial. If it sees a slightly bigger competitor it flies away. I have not tested this system, but it sounds like an interesting and fun project that costs next to nothing.

http://goodseedco.net/blog/posts/cabbage-butterfly-decoy Posted 25th Jun, 2015 in On Our Mind by Robin Kelson

PageOfCabbageMoths_efile

Cut out paper decoy representations of the butterfly. Here’s a single page template you can download

We don’t have many cabbage butterflies  because we have both a predator – the paper wasp, and a parasite –  Cotesia glomerata, a parasitic wasp that lays its eggs in small (first instar) larvae of the Cabbage White Butterfly, or Imported Cabbage Worm (as we call it in the US). Cotesia larvae emerge from the caterpillars after 15-20 days and spin yellow or white cocoons on or near the host which dies when the wasps emerge. We often find clusters of these cocoons (about the size of cooked rice grains) on the underside of brassica leaves.

I learned from Bryan O’Hara in  No-Till Intensive Vegetable Culture that our friends, the Cotesia glomerata wasps that parasitize brassica caterpillars, and overwinter as pupal cocoons on the undersides of brassica leaves, will hatch out in spring on the very day the overwintered brassicas start to flower. The 20-50 day lifecycle needs brassica flowers, so don’t be in a hurry to cut down all your bolting greens! The flowers provide nectar for the adult wasps. The leaves, as we know, provide food for the caterpillars, which provide the host for the wasps to lay eggs in. The wasp larvae feed on the caterpillar until it dies, then pupate.

There’s an incredible National Geographic video of this cycle, showing parasitic wasp larvae swimming around inside a caterpillar, bursting out through its skin. The weirdest bit is that it is the dying caterpillar that spins the protective cocoons around the pupating larvae. And us who plant the brassicas that feed the caterpillars! Who is the farmer and who is farmed?

This video shows a paper wasp tackling a caterpillar.

This one shows Cotesia glomerata emerging

This one shows more about the parasitic Cotesia glomerata 


Savoy cabbage with frost. Savoys can take much colder temperatures than this!
Photo Lori Katz

Average First and Last Frost Dates

Harvest to Table has this helpful article:

Average First and Last Frost Dates for Cities, States, and Countries

Average frost dates – the last one in spring and the first one in the fall – are useful to know when planning your crops. Once you’ve calculated your planting out date for various crops, you can work back to set sowing dates for the crops you’ll transplant, and bed prep dates for every crop. You can also make a co-ordinated plan that paces the work and doesn’t have too much in any one week, or any while you plan to be on vacation. You can calculate your first sensible planting date for each crop, your last one and perhaps some in-between ones to keep up supplies throughout the season.

You can use your average first fall frost date to make sure you don’t plant frost-tender crops too late in the season when you have no hope of them maturing in time for a harvest. You can extrapolate beyond the frost date to figure out when to harvest the more hardy crops. See my Winter-Kill Temperatures chart for useful tips.

By looking at the number of frost-free days in your area you can see whether to grow long-season tender crops like watermelons, or whether it’s only worthwhile if you choose fast-maturing varieties.

The Harvest to Table website is a trove of clearly explained information.

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Soil thermometer with easy-to-spot backing in a bed of beets.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Soil Temperatures

Average frosts are only averages. Actual frosts can sometimes happen two weeks either side of those dates. Frosts are only one particular temperature, and may not matter to the crop you’re planning for. Soil temperatures for germination and for planting are another important part of planning.

K-State Extension has a brief article on the importance of measuring your soil temperature.

The Empress of Dirt has a helpful list of Best Soil Temperatures for Sowing Vegetable Seeds, in alphabetical order by crop.

Harvest to Table also has a list, ranked by temperature, so you can see what you can plant this week.

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Scottish Climate Friendly Farming Video

Farmer Patrick Barbour, from Highland Perthshire, has won the search for Scotland’s climate friendly farming champion. Patrick’s innovative three-minute video entry, filmed at Mains of Fincastle, near Pitlochry stunningly illustrates the benefits of tree planting, species rich grassland, rotational grazing for cattle and sheep and stitching nitrogen fixing crops into pastures.  It is available to watch at: Next Generation Climate Change Competition

Patrick, Robert and Catherine Barbour of Mains of Fincastle, near Pitlochry
Photo The Scottish Farmer

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