Book Review: Soil Science for Gardeners, by Robert Pavlis

Book Review: Soil Science for Gardeners, by Robert Pavlis, New Society Publishers, 2020. 228 pages, with charts and diagrams, $18.99.

I recommend this book to all gardeners who have hesitated to open a soil science text for fear of dry incomprehensible overloads of numbers. Robert Pavlis explains how your garden grows, and dashes cold water on false myths that may have been wasting your time and limiting your success for years! He leads us to a better understanding, including on a microscopic level, of soil biology, chemistry, physics, geology and ecology and to a place of wonder and curiosity at the everyday functioning of crops and soils.

This new comprehension can lead us to do right by our plants and our gardens, leading to healthier plants and higher yields. Robert writes in plain language, as a gardener with over 45 years of experience. He is the author of those Garden Myths books you might have seen. Perhaps, like me, you paid them little attention, thinking your own knowledge was fact-based. Even so, like me, you might find you had been holding onto some anti-facts (mine was that I believed compost is acidic – not so!). This book aims to have us understand real soil and make real improvements, via a Soil Health Action Plan at the end of the book.

The three sections of the book are Understanding Soil, Solving Soil Problems, and A Personalized Plan for Healthy Soil. A satisfying, logical sequence. Read the sections in the order presented! Robert says it’s very easy to grow plants if you understand the soil which anchors them, feeds them and provides the air and water they need to survive. With a solid understanding of what’s going on, you won’t need to memorize rules.

The 2016 definition of soil, by the Soil Science Academy of America is “Soil is the top layer of the Earth’s surface that generally consists of loose rock and mineral particles mixed with dead organic matter.” A rather bland underselling of what soil accomplishes. Here comes myth-bust #1: “Soil is not alive. It does not need to eat or breathe.” “The whole idea that soil is a living organism that requires similar attention to animals is completely false and leads to many poor recommendations for managing soil.” No, don’t give up here! It’s not the soil but the ecosystem of the soil and all the living organisms in and on it that holds the life. The ecosystem contains life, but is not itself alive.

Air and water are critical for good plant growth, about 25% of each. A simple, startling truth. The sand, silt and clay we might worry about make up another 45%, and 5% organic matter might fill out the total. A large tree can remove up to 100 gallons (400 liters) of water a day, discharging most of it into the air as water vapor. As the water leaves the soil, air is pulled in to fill the spaces. Roots pull the oxygen in, day and night, to convert sugars into energy. Were you also lead to believe that plants photosynthesized by day and respired only by night?

Did you know (I hadn’t thought about it) that “soil pH” is really an average of the pH of the water in the soil, and a spot with organic matter and lots of bacterial activity will have a very different pH from a spot with less organic matter? The rhizosphere (the area right around a plant’s roots) can have a very different pH from the soil solution further away. Plants can grow in alkaline soil because their roots are actually growing in acidic conditions. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria on legume roots cause the plant to release hydrogen ions, making the rhizosphere more acidic. To some extent, our efforts to change the soil pH can be undone by our crops and weeds! A soil property called buffer capacity lets the soil absorb materials at different pH and maintain its same level. Peat moss is acidic, but it does not acidify alkaline soil. The soil in the rhizosphere can be 2 pH units different from the soil around. This is usually written about in rather magical terms, but here it is in plain language.

Roots grow just fine where there is enough phosphorus. Adding more at transplanting doesn’t help, and can hinder. Visual plant symptoms can predict possible deficiencies, but are not a reliable diagnosis. Purple leaves may indicate phosphorus deficiency or cold temperatures, high light intensity, pest damage or lack of water. Or a nitrogen shortage reducing the plant’s ability to absorb phosphorus. There’s much that we don’t know!

Pay attention to the Cation Exchange Capacity – the measure of the soil’s ability to hold cations – because many plant nutrients are cations. You can increase the CEC by increasing the clay content, increasing the OM or increasing the pH. Read more in this book.

Have you ever thought about the “free” nitrogen from legume root nodules? Rethink of it as “homegrown” or “solar” rather than simply magic and free, because the leguminous plant may use up to 20% of the sugars produced during photosynthesis, to feed the bacteria.

Don’t justify your adherence to organic gardening by falsely claiming that synthetic fertilizers kill bacteria. Bacteria feed on both synthetic and organic fertilizers. This book challenges us to find the factual basis for choosing to grow organically, making us stronger advocates.

Hoophouse bed broadforked to aerate the soil without inverting.
Photo Pam Dawling

The bacteria chapter is followed by a chapter on fungi. Fungal spores are everywhere, even the Antarctic. Fungi are crucial for cleaning up plant litter on the soil surface. They grow above-ground hyphae which can penetrate dry leaves or wood chips and move the nutrients deep into the soil. Bacteria can’t tackle such tough stuff! 150 species of fungi capture and digest nematodes.

Why is organic matter important?  This chapter explores the chemical and biological effects of organic matter on soil. Soil contains three forms of organic carbon: the living (15%), the dead and the very dead (stable humus and charcoal). Increasing the level of organic matter in the soil can increase aggregation, improve water infiltration (reducing runoff), increase aeration, increase water-holding capacity, improve tilth of clay soils, reduce crusting, and improve the size and distribution of the pore spaces. Those are just the physical effects. It will also increase the cation exchange capacity, increase the availability of nitrogen, boron, molybdenum, phosphorus and sulfur, and increase the microbial activity and diversity.

Often we think about adding partially decomposed OM such as compost and manure. We should face the reality that compost tends to have low levels of nutrients (maybe 1:1:1).   The big value of these is in providing food for microbes, short-lived beings that provide a constant supply of fresh OM, multiplying its value. Partially decomposed compost takes about five years to finish decomposing, during which time it slowly releases nutrients. This gradual steady supply is what crops need. The humus left at the end is a complex molecular mixture of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, resistant to further decay.

The initial effect of adding fresh OM (not composted OM) is an explosion of microbial reproduction, feeding and death. The microbes use nitrogen, which can cause plants to suffer a shortage. It takes time for a new balance to be achieved, providing adequate N for the plants.  The needs for the N can encourage gardeners to add so much compost that the P level is too high, which can bring death to mycorrhizal fungi, leading to roots driving deeper to access their own P from the soil directly. We have very high soil P, a result of misunderstanding soil test limits. I have worried about it, then read more and stopped worrying. Soil P is pretty stable. If you are not leaching P into a waterway, it just stays in your soil until a plant need it. We switched to using less compost and more cover crops where we could. We were already using a lot of cover crops – it’s not like we were slouches in that department! After more time, I settled on accepting our situation, and as the plants show no sign of P-caused problems and our soil is bursting with earthworms, it doesn’t affect us much.

I mentioned at the beginning that I learned that finished compost is alkaline, not acidic. In the initial composting stage, acidity happens. Then fungi thrive, and decompose the tough lignin and cellulose, causing the pH to rise and bacteria to take over. Compost-making has lots of myths! Poorly understood science makes them grow, I suppose. Bokashi composting, for example (more of a fermentation than a composting process) is based on the idea that fermented material decomposes faster, although it’s unclear if this is really true. “The best method of composting is the one that you do and continue to do because you like doing it. Any form of composting is better than taking yard waste to the curb.”

The Rhizosphere chapter is fascinating! Root exudates can restrict the growth of competing roots, attract microbes into symbiotic relationships, Change the chemical and physical properties of the soil solution and the soil, and make nutrients more available. Bacteria make explosive population growth as they feed on exudates. Then their predators, nematodes and protozoa, join the party. The soil water around the roots becomes a nutrient soup. By photosynthesis, the plants produce the attractive exudates that the soil food web turns into plant nutrients right where the roots can efficiently hoover them up. Plants are active in seeking nutrients, not passive recipients. Not to say they have knowledge, or think and plan. It’s a matter of chemical reactions controlled by enzymes with the capacity to change their activity based on the presence or absence of chemical triggers. Let’s marvel at the reality! We don’t need fairy stories!

The second section of the book, Solving Soil Problems, starts with identifying the problems, and works through techniques affecting the soil, chemical and microbe issues, increasing organic matter and structural problems. We are not feeding plants, we are replacing missing nutrients in the soil, so they can take the nutrients they need. The solution will depend on your soil, so a “tomato fertilizer” is not going to be what tomatoes need in every soil. If you plan to top up the missing nutrients, get a soil test to learn what those are. But if you plan to apply manure or compost everywhere as your only amendment, your money is wasted on a soil test. If you add compost every year and return cover crops, organic mulch and your plant debris to the soil, and your plants are mostly growing well, you probably don’t need to add any other fertilizer to your garden. This alarmed me a bit. What about boron shortage, which happens here? Yes, if you are a farmer or market gardener, yields do matter and soil tests (free for commercial growers in Virginia) will be worthwhile. But for a home gardener, or a landscape gardener, yields might not be at the top of your list. Robert explains various tests, and gives his take on how useful they are. The information here can save a lot of confusion and wasted effort.

Photo by NCSU Crop Soil Undergrad course

In the techniques chapter, the author explains the dramatic difference in available nitrogen in a cultivated garden and a no-till one. No-till can supply up to five times the nitrogen, because tilling adds more air into the soil, increasing the microbial activity, burning up the OM. There is a useful chart comparing the effects of fertilizer, compost and wood chips on the soil. We’ve all learned not to bury wood chips in the soil, where they use up the nitrogen while decomposing. But on the surface they can do wonders.

Crop rotation has come under scorn recently from commercial growers who are focused on maximizing yield and profit for their time on small areas of land. Sure, salad mix and baby spinach can rake in the money. But generations of farmers have learned to grow different types of crops each year in a particular spot. This can increase yields 10-25%, even though we are not sure why. Studies have shown it’s not simply nutrient availability. It could be pH changes freeing up more nutrients, or microbe biodiversity, or differing root growth granting access to more depth than the current crop alone can achieve. Rotated crops are more drought resistant and make better use of nitrogen. Research is needed.

As I was happily digesting this book I was brought short by this mnemonic that still puzzles me: “If you have trouble remembering whether P stands for phosphorus or potassium, remember that these nutrients are listed in alphabetical order. Phosphorus comes before potassium in the alphabet, and so P comes before K.” Um, K comes before P, last time I looked. Confusing.

Does rock dust add nutrients? No evidence, says Robert. Do not be beguiled by mineral products claiming to add 74 minerals to your soil. Plants might only use 20 of them. More is not better! Beware fad products such as biostimulants and probiotics. Plants cannot use vitamin B1. What about compost tea? Yes, it adds nutrients, but claims that the included microbes work wonders are not supported by science: test results are very mixed, including worse. Sometimes we are too gullible! Milk, molasses: they add nutrients but no special magic. Fermenting something cannot add nutrients – it could make some more available, although that isn’t proven either. The fungal and bacterial populations increase, but are the species nutritious ones or pathogenic ones?

Photo by Usu.edu Soil 1

The gardener’s goal is to farm healthy microbes, even though they are too small to see. Use the state of the soil and the health of the plants as indicators of the health of the microbes. Supply OM, water and you’re on the right track. It has been proved useful to add rhizobium legume inoculant if you haven’t grown legumes for some years. Fungal inoculation of soybeans in low phosphorus soil will be effective. Not otherwise.

The author’s general practice is to improve the soil environment to help existing microbes. There is a list of 7 general ways to do that. There is a whole chapter on increasing OM, using what’s local and cheap. Coir is a waste product, but its production causes environmental damage to local water supplies (large amounts of sodium have to be leached out).

Biochar, one of the new “Garden Wonders”, has claims to make big improvements to the soil food web. Most of the biochar studies have been conducted in labs, not on farms. Even then, 50% of the studies report higher yields, 20% report no change, and 30% report a decrease. There are probably better ways to spend your money!

What about gypsum? I believed the common advice to use it to break up clay soils. Mostly this myth is not supported by evidence. Gypsum can have some negative effects. Add more OM instead. Likewise for improving sandy soils: add more OM.

The final section of the book is a set of worksheets and instructions to help gardeners improve the soil health where they are. This is a slow process, so start soon! Robert has also made the forms available on his website www.gardenfundamentals.com/soil-book-forms. First assess your soil, then make an action plan, then record your progress.

I recommend this book for all sustainable/regenerative/organic gardeners and small-scale farmers, and even large-scale farmers who realize there are gaps in their understanding of soil science. This book is very accessible, user-friendly and full of soil-based common sense. Winter is a good time to make new plans!

Robert Pavlis has two websites: www.gardenmyths.com and www.gardenfundamentals.com as well as a YouTube channel www.youtube.com/Gardenfundamentals1

Planning to grow potatoes again

Planning to grow potatoes again 

Potato plant emerging in spring.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

This is the last part of a monthly series on growing potatoes, a dietary staple.

I have a whole chapter about potatoes in Sustainable Market Farming, where the basics of potato growing can be found. Below are more details about growing potatoes that you may not have wanted or needed this year. Use your own records and this information to plan for bigger harvests, at times of year suited to your farm.

Varieties

Some varieties store better than others, so advance planning will help achieve good results. Scrutinize the small print in the seed catalogs before your next seed order.

Covering a row of seed potato pieces aligned under a rope.
Photo Ira Wallace
Photo Ira Wallace

Potato types: determinate and indeterminate

We have mostly grown Red Pontiac, Yukon Gold and Kennebec. They all seem to be determinate varieties — they grow as a bush, then flower and die. I only learned this year that there are determinate (varieties with naturally self-limiting growth, generally “early” varieties) and indeterminate varieties (such as “Russet Nugget,” “Nicola,” “German Butterball” and “Elba”). The distinction is explained in Potato Bag Gardening. Growers using towers, grow bags, and cage systems want indeterminate potatoes, which continue to produce more layers of tubers on the stems as they are progressively covered with more soil. Growers wanting a fast reliable crop in the field mostly choose determinate types, which grow as a bush, then flower and die. The Internet does seem to have some contradictory statements about which varieties are determinate and which indeterminate, and some dedicated container growers make assertions not supported by experienced commercial growers. So Reader Beware! I trust Extension and here’s a link to their Ask an Expert page on potato types.

Crop rotation, including cover crops

This is very important for potatoes, which are nightshades like potatoes, peppers and eggplant. Colorado potato beetles emerge from the soil in spring and walk (they don’t fly at this stage) towards the nearest nightshades they can detect. Give them a long hike! A distance of 750′ (230 m) or more from last year’s nightshade plots should keep them away. A three- or four-year rotation out of nightshades in each plot is ideal.

Suitable cover crops before potatoes include brassicas (which can help reduce root knot nematodes and Verticillium), Japanese millet (which can reduce Rhizoctonia) and cereals in general. Beware beets, buckwheat and legumes such as red and crimson clovers, and some peas and beans, as these can host Rhizoctonia and scab.

Late corn undersown with oats, mowed high in October to deal with weeds, and the ex-sweet potato patch sown in winter wheat and crimson clover. Credit Ezra Freeman

In our ten year crop rotation, our March-planted potatoes follow a winter of oats and soy (which winter-kill in our zone 7a climate). This cover crop is undersown in our late sweet corn about 30 days after sowing. Our June-planted potatoes follow a winter cover crop mix of winter wheat or winter rye and crimson clover. This mix is sown in early-mid October after our middle planting of sweet corn. (Yes, we risk the clover.) We had read that potatoes are said to do well after corn, so when we set up our crop rotation, that’s what we did. I have no scientific proof that the assertion is true, but we often have good potatoes, so at least it does no obvious harm!

Fall broccoli transplanted after July potato harvest, and undersown with a mixed clover cover crop.
Photo Nina Gentle.

After harvesting our March-planted potatoes in mid-July, we regularly did a fast-turnaround and transplanted our fall broccoli and cabbage in late July. We undersowed that with a clover mix 4 weeks after planting the brassicas. We kept the clover mix for an all-year Green Fallow, right round until the February a year and a half later. This fast-turnaround was a bit nerve-wracking, so we no longer do that, simply following the potatoes with the clover mix, while transplanting the brassicas in another plot.

After harvesting our June-planted potatoes in October, we sow winter wheat or winter rye with crimson clover or Austrian Winter Peas, depending when we are ready to sow. (Wheat and clover if by 10/15, rye and peas if later)

Preparing the Soil

A bed ready for tilling after mowing the cover crop and spreading compost.
Photo Pam Dawling

Potatoes benefit from generous amounts of compost or other organic matter (they use 10 tons/ac, 22,400 kg/ha) and will grow in soils with a pH of 5.0–6.5. They use high amounts of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and need adequate soil levels of iron and manganese. They are less affected by low levels of copper and boron. Hay mulch can be a good source of K. As Carol Deppe points out, potatoes will still produce an OK crop in poor soil, where you might not be able to grow much else. See the ATTRA publication Potatoes: Organic Production and Marketing.

Dormancy

See Part 5, Storing Potatoes, for an introduction to this topic. When potatoes sprout and whether they grow one or more sprouts, can be controlled by manipulating the storage conditions.

For extra-early spring planting, aim to sprout relatively few eyes per potato, so that relatively few shoots will grow and the seed pieces will be big enough, with enough nutrients for the plants. Do this by priming the seed potatoes at 65°F (18°C) until the eyes at the rose end just start to sprout. Store at 45°F (7°C) until two weeks before planting time, then finish the sprouting in warmth and light. The early sprouting of the rose-end eyes suppresses the sprouting of the other eyes. If needed, break off extra sprouts before planting.

To avoid sprouting, keep the potatoes below 50F (10C) once they are more than a month from harvest, avoid excess moisture, and avoid “physiological aging” of the potatoes, caused by stressing them with fluctuating temperatures, among other things. If eating potatoes do start to develop sprouts, it’s a good idea to rub off the sprouts as soon as possible, because the sprouting will produce ethylene, which will encourage more sprouting.

Physiological age of seed potatoes

Seed potatoes can act differently depending on their “physiological age.” The warmer the conditions are after dormancy ends, the quicker the sprouts grow and the faster the tubers “age.” When we buy seed potatoes the storage conditions they have already received are beyond our control. As a guide, the length of the longest sprout, and the number of sprouts are measures of physiological age (if the sprouting has taken place in the light). Varieties do not all show these effects to the same degree.

Don’t let your potatoes sprout in storage
Photo Jesse Strassburg

Deliberately adjusting storage temperatures is a way of manipulating the physiological age, in order to get higher yields or earlier maturity. To age seed potatoes, buy the seed in late fall or early winter before they break dormancy and store them rose (eye) end up in daylight at 50°F (10°C) until just before the planting date. In spring, reduce the temperature just before planting, to minimize the thermal shock from the cold soil.

Physiologically “young” tubers will have just one or two sprouts, due to apical dominance (when the leading bud inhibits the other eyes from developing shoots). The plants will have fewer stems, leading to fewer, but larger, potatoes. They will need longer to grow, and so give a later harvest. If you hurry and dig them early, you will only get low yields.

“Middle-aged” tubers give the best yields (27% higher than young or old tubers). “Middle-aged” seed potatoes have multiple short sprouts, without the hairy look of “old” ones. The pre-sprouting instructions given in Part One: Planting potatoes aim to produce “middle-aged” seed.

Physiologically “old” seed potatoes will have many “hairy-looking” branched sprouts, coming from eyes all over the potato. These potato plants emerge faster and start tuber formation sooner. The final plant size will be smaller (because the shoots are weak) and the plants will be more susceptible to drought and die sooner. Because the tubers do mature quickly, they may be good if you seek an early harvest, or are planting a fall crop a bit too close to the frost date. The total yield will be lower (but earlier) than from “younger” seed.

See the University of Maine Extension Service Bulletin #2412, Potato Facts: Selecting, Cutting and Handling Potato Seed  Their drawings are reproduced here. Also see Know and Grow Vegetables by Salter, Bleasdale, et al. for more on this complex topic.

More POTATO resources

The University of Maryland Extension Home and Garden Info Center Potatoes

University of Maryland IPM series on potatoes, which is a troubleshooter sheet on causes and solutions for problems

Cornell 2016 Organic Production and IPM Guide for Potatoes (104 pages)

The Potato Association of America, Commercial Potato Production in North America 2010. (90 pages)

The Government of Canada Biofungicides provide Post-harvest Disease Protection in Potatoes

Other related Blog Posts

Potato Research on Harvest and Storage

What Makes Potatoes Sprout, Nov 2017

How to Deal with Green Potatoes (one of my most-read blog posts!)

Green Potato Myths and 10 Steps to Safe Potato Eating in Mother Earth News

Root Crops in September

 

Root Crops in September

Cherry Belle radishes in the fall.
Photo Pam Dawling

Root Crops to Plant in Central Virginia in September

In September the days get shorter and we get our last chance to plant crops to feed us during the winter. Much more of our garden time will be spent harvesting this month!

In early September we can direct sow several root crops.

  • Daikon and other winter radish (in very early September);
  • Turnips (by 9/15);
  • Kohlrabi only takes 60 days from sowing to harvest. They can be direct sown or transplanted from flats or an outdoor nursery seedbed at the beginning of September. Kohlrabi is hardy to about 15°F (-9.4°C). Our night temperatures will be higher than that until the beginning of November;
  • Small radishes by mid-September. We usually squeeze these in on the south shoulder of a bed of kale, because they grow quickly and we don’t need a whole bedful. By the time the kale needs the space, the radishes will be gone.
  • In the hoophouse, we start our winter crops by sowing radishes and leafy greens on 9/6 or 9/7.
A bed of young growing turnips.
Photo Pam Dawling

See Root Crops in August for more details on these.

It’s too late for any slow-growing crops like carrots. We can just squeeze in some beets at the beginning of September, if we take good care of them. Hoeing, weeding and thinning at the first opportunity will help them grow a bit faster and make up for lost time. We could cover them with rowcover to warm their airspace and soil, once we have got them established and tidied up. I hate to cover weedy crops with rowcover – you just know it encourages weeds to grow faster! Beets won’t die of cold until 12F for my favorite, Cylindra, so they have quite a while yet. See Root Crops in August for more about fall beets.

Radish succession crops

In our winter hoophouse, we sow radishes six or seven times. It is a science and an art to time the sowings to provide a succession of delectable little radishes with no gaps in supply and no overlap of plantings and gnarly big roots. I have made a graph of radish sowing and harvesting dates to help us even out our supply.

Here’s a chart. 1/25 is our last worthwhile sowing date for hoophouse radishes.

Radish #1 sown 9/6 Harvest 10/5 – 11/15
            #2 sown 10/1 Harvest 11/6 – 12/25
            #3 sown 10/30 Harvest 12/16 – 2/7
            #4 sown 11/29 Harvest 1/16 – 2/25
            #5 sown 12/23 Harvest 2/19 – 3/16
White Icicle radishes in our hoophouse in winter. Photo Pam Dawling

Root Crops to Harvest in Central Virginia in September

During September, the root crops we can harvest include beets (and beet greens), carrots, radishes, turnips and horseradish (which I have more to say about below). We hold off on parsnips, if we have grown those, as the flavor improves a lot after a frost.

We could harvest potatoes, which I have written about in Potato Harvesting and Root Crops in June. We hold off on sweet potatoes until October, and I’ll write about them in a post of their own in a few weeks. If you need to harvest earlier, read the chapter in Sustainable Market Farming.

Special Root Crop Topic for September in Central Virginia: Horseradish

Horseradish plant.
Photo Harvest to Table

Horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, a perennial, is very easily propagated from pieces of root. It can be hard to get rid of if you change your mind! It’s wise to plant your perennial food crops in a special place that isn’t part of your annual crop rotation space. Remove all perennial weeds before planting horseradish or any other perennial vegetable. Ours is beside our grape vines, near our rhubarb. Full sun or partial shade will work. Horseradish looks like a big bad dock growing, but is in fact a brassica. Horseradish can provide value-added products for out-of-season sales, as well as a pungent treat in cold weather.

Horseradish root.
Photo GrowVeg

Buy or beg crowns or root pieces, and plant them 4-6 weeks before your average last frost date. Horseradish grows best in cool, damp regions with temperatures between 45°F (7°C) and 75°F (24°C). But in central Virginia, temperatures go from 0°F (-18°C) and 100°F (38°C) and we have more than enough horseradish, so don’t worry too much about that temperature range.

Plant crowns just at soil level. Plant root pieces with the top just below the surface and the bottom end covered with 2-3’ (5-8 cm) of soil. Space horseradish plants 24-36” (60-90 cm) apart. If you are worried about it spreading into important nearby plants, create a metal, wood or stone barrier 24” (60 cm) deep around the bed.

Keep the soil damp, add some compost once a year. You are unlikely to have any pest or disease problems with this crop. Young plants should not be harvested until the leaves are at least 12” (30 cm) long.

Horseradish plant.
Photo Nourse Farms

Horseradish is traditionally harvested September-April (the months with R in them!). The roots go as much as 2 ft (60 cm) deep and are very strong (but not as sturdy as gobo, Chinese burdock). Use a strong shovel, spade or digging fork, and start loosening the roots from 6” (15 cm) away. If you hear or feel a root snap, be glad! The goal is to extract some of the roots and firm up whatever remains, to continue growing. Water the plants after harvest if the weather is dry.

Collect the harvested root parts in a bucket, and wash them right away. You can store them dirty, but it is harder to get them clean later. Harvested roots can be refrigerated for several months until used – they seem fairly impervious to rot.

When you process horseradish do it outdoors, with googles on. I kid you not! This can be a good porch activity in sunny chilly weather. After thoroughly washing and scrubbing the roots, peel them carefully. Throw the peelings in the trash, not the compost pile, as they easily regrow from tiny pieces!

The peeled roots can be ground up in a food processor, to make relish or sauce. Or if you prefer, use a fine grater.

Harvested horseradish roots.
Photo Wikipedia Kren_Verkauf

If you want to buy plants, try Nourse Farms

If you’d like to read more about horseradish, including container plants grown as an annual, there’s info on Harvest to Table

If you’d like to read how to make the condiment, see Barbara Pleasant’s article on GrowVeg

Other Root Crop Tasks in Central Virginia in September: Washing, sorting and storing root crops

Harvesting

How you harvest roots depends on the scale of your farm and the equipment you have. For example, with carrots, you can mow or tear off the tops, then undercut with machinery, then lift. Or you can use the tops to help get the carrots out of ground, as we do, loosening them with a digging fork, then trim.

Ensure gentle treatment and no bruising of roots while harvesting. As we all know, it is important to avoid bacterial contamination. Wounds and abrasions can lead the crop to pick up new bacteria from the environment. Crops can be punctured by sharp edges of containers as well as the more obvious knives and fingernails.

The wash-pack house at Finca Marta, Artemisa, Cuba
Photo Pam Dawling

Trimming

Our method is to bring the harvested roots to a shady spot to trim, wash, sort and bag. We have a printed sheet, optimistically called “Perfect Vegetable Storage” to help us remember from year to year the tips we have learned. Usually we need scissors or knives for a clean cut, and usually we aim to leave about ¼” (0.5 cm) of leaf-stems attached to roots. It might be quicker to tear the leaves off, but this doesn’t give such good results and can cause the crop to need extra storage space. When we harvest carrots for immediate use, we snap the tops off right at the junction of the foliage and the root. When we harvest for storage, we trim with scissors to leave a small length of greens.

Washing and rinsing

After washing, and perhaps before, comes cooling. Make full use of all possibilities, such as damp burlap, or high percentage shade cloth, or the shade of trees, buildings, or a truck. At the washing station, crops may be sprayed down on a mesh table, or dunked in troughs or buckets of clean water. Washing can also act to cool the crop.

Draining away the water is important. Drain on a mesh table or in a holey bucket, a suspended mesh bag or laundry basket. Barrel root washers have the draining stage built in. We don’t have a rotary barrel root washer, much as we’d like one. Here’s our manual method.

  1. As you cut, gently drop the roots into buckets of water. This lets the dirt wash itself off to some extent, as you continue to cut more. Use whatever size and type of container seems most efficient.
  2. When the wash container is full, switch from trimming to washing: rub each root with your hands and drop it gently into a container of clean rinse water. Depending on the cleanliness of the roots after washing, it may be possible to reuse the rinse water. Or else make it be wash water for the next round. Once the water is quite dirty it needs to go. Gently pour it round a tree, or on the ground somewhere else. Avoid causing a washout by flinging a bucketful all in one place. Rinsing needs pretty clean water.
  3. When the rinse container is full, get two clean holey buckets. Take the roots one at a time out of the rinse water (don’t rub then any more, just lift them out). Sort as you go.
Harvested Purple Top Milan and White Egg turnips.
Photo Pam Dawling

Sorting storable roots from non-storable

  1. Decide if the root is Storable or is Use First (cull, or home use). Storable are sound, reasonably large. Use First may be small (less than ¾” diameter, less than 3” long, maybe) or damaged (deep holes, soft spots, fresh complex cracks). Open dry cracks or snapped-in-half roots may heal over and store just fine.
    Bucket lid with holes for sorting root vegetables for storage.
    Photo Wren Vile

    We made different sized holes in a special bucket lid, to help new people get an idea of size.

  2. Put the storable ones in one holey bucket and the non-storable (Use First) in the other. It helps to have 2 different colored buckets. It’s better to err on the side of calling doubtful ones Use First, but it’s even better to learn good sorting, as too many Use First roots can’t all be used quickly.
  3. When a Use First bucket is full, set it aside, or put on the cart or truck. Once a Storable bucket is full, set it aside to drain thoroughly before bagging. Do not confuse categories. Do more trimming, washing, rinsing, sorting.
  4. When the Storable roots have drained, get a well-perforated plastic sack. Ensure there are enough holes and big enough ones. Buy perforated bags or perforate your own. If you need more holes, the safest method is to lay the bag on the grass, stand on diagonally opposite corners, then stab the bag with a largish knife. Make about 3 cuts across the width of the bag and about 6? 7? 8? down the length. Or fold the bag and use a 3-ring paper hole punch in several places. Refold and repeat.
  5. Gently pour the Storable roots into the well-perforated bag. We usually use 50 pound bags. Tie the neck with a short length of rope and make a masking tape “flag” label with the date and the type of vegetable.
Sweet Potatoes in storage.
Photo Pam Dawling

Storing

When all the bags of storers have been gathered up, record the number going to the cooler on an Inventory clipboard. If there is no official tally sheet, make one on a full size sheet of paper.

We store bulk roots in a walk-in cooler, up on a high loft/shelf. Use pallets in the loft for better airflow under the bags. Start a new pallet for each different type of vegetable and for a substantially different date, eg fall carrots separate from spring carrots. Keep inventory: once a month, someone takes stock of what we have and updates the list.

See Root Crops in August for details on sorting newly stored potatoes

Book Review: Dispossession: Discrimination against African American Farmers in the Age of Civil Rights, by Pete Daniel

Book Review: Dispossession: Discrimination against African American Farmers in the Age of Civil Rights

by Pete Daniel, University of North Carolina Press, 2015. 352 pages, with 17 photos, $29.95.

Dispossession is a very gripping and valuable book, a combination of detailed history and personal stories, making plain how African American farmers were systematically deprived of their land and livelihood by the white-controlled agri-government during the third quarter of the twentieth century. Yes, the same “civil rights era” when some substantial success was made against racial discrimination. At that same time, agriculture was experiencing big changes leading to increased yields. Mechanization, herbicides and pesticides reduced the number of farmworkers needed. Between 1940 and 1974, the number of African American farmers fell by an astounding 93 percent, compared with a much smaller number of white farmers leaving the land. The magnitude of this decline was personal tragedy to those farmers and it was not coincidental – white people in the USDA manipulated the distribution of information, loans, grants and of positions of power, to favor white farmers. This shameful part of American history only slowly became apparent to me, a white immigrant farmer, as I noticed USDA reparation efforts within phrases like “historically under-served”. Quite the under-statement!

The USDA promoted capital-intensive agriculture and subsidized already wealthy farmers headed in this direction. At the same time, the USDA put barriers in the way of women and minority farmers seeking a fair share of resources, including the important acreage allotments (approval to grow certain acreages of wheat, cotton, corn, tobacco, peanuts, and rice). These production controls had been introduced in the mid-1950s to prevent surplus production. Every couple of years the rules changed, and not all farmers were given the needed information to apply for that year’s permits and price support mechanisms.

The USDA had been run by white men since it was formed in 1862, and, with the exception of the Negro Extension Service, African Americans were excluded from any decision-making positions. Many individuals and organizations worked to get USDA to remove the discrimination, and to help African Americans get a fair distribution of the resources. Pete Daniel’s book focuses on the South in the years before the 1999 Pigford v. Glickman class action suit, which won compensation for discrimination occurring after 1981. Previously there was no real check on USDA discrimination. The class action suit opened the way for similar suits by women, Native Americans and Latinx farmers.

The first couple of chapters of the book give the overview and make for information-packed reading. After setting the stage, Pete Daniel shares individual stories of farmers, civil rights volunteers, and black extension agents. The first chapter is called “Intended Consequences”. Although the 1964 Civil Rights Act banned discrimination, the US Commission on Civil Rights (created to monitor the application of the Act) reported in March 1965 of a broad range of discriminatory practices in every office of the USDA. It took 30 years before Timothy Pigford brought the suit that found the USDA guilty of widespread discrimination. The broken promise of “Forty acres and a mule” for every soldier in the Civil War was followed by decades of subverted laws and farming programs that left black farmers unjustly treated. And Pigford did not fix everything! Congress did not make funds available until 2010, by which time many of the mistreated farmers had died or lost their farms. And all the farmers discriminated against before 1981 received no recompense.

At the very time that laws were supposedly protecting Black people from bias, Black farmers were suffering the most crippling discrimination. It was very hard for sharecroppers to become tenant farmers, with control over the sale of their own crops. Their fortunes were eroded by labor laws, bad weather, bankers, landlords and pests. Diets were poor, and so was sanitation and health, as well as childhood schooling. Many tenants and sharecroppers became redundant as machinery took their jobs.

Black farmers who succeeded did so by cultivating white support, as advised by Booker T Washington. The decline of Black farmers after World War II was in strong contrast with their gains in the 50 years after Emancipation from slavery. Over-production led to lower prices, which led to desperate farmers.

The USDA was founded during the Civil War to encourage better farming methods throughout the country. In 1862, Congress funded land-grant universities in each state. Since Southern white schools would not admit Black students, Congress funded the African American land grant colleges in 1890 (with fewer resources than went to the white colleges).

Black farmer with mule team. NRCS photo.

The 1887 Hatch Act established agricultural research stations, and Congress established the segregated and unequal Federal Extension Service in 1914, operating out of the land-grant universities, providing some farmers with advice and information. The organization of the Extension Service was convoluted, territorial and discriminatory, and extension agents wielded enormous power. The confused structure lead to claims that some agents were employed by the county and some were federal employees. (All, in fact, were part of the federal civil service retirement system and held civil service appointments.)

White agents oversaw the Negro Extension Service, which was hosted by the 1890 land-grant colleges. Black agents got lower pay and poorer equipment, but the jobs offered respectability and the opportunity to serve rural people. Women working for the Home Demonstration service got a lot of satisfaction from the work. African American Extension agents had to tread a fine line when addressing the needs of Black famers and preserving goodwill with whites. Many whites only tolerated black agents who did not challenge their authority or disrupt farm labor.

A white agent with 6 years’ work experience with the extension service was paid $375 a month, while a black agent with 14 years’ experience was paid only $212. The Black agent received considerably less information from the office, and was kept out of the decision-making loop. In some places, the furniture for the Black agent’s office was much poorer quality than that in the white agent’s office; Black agents received no vehicles, and little demonstration materials and had to do their own typing. Black agents were usually isolated from decision-making and rarely interacted with their white counterparts. Because the USDA functioned in isolation, the white leadership in USDA had not been challenged about their discriminatory practices.

Loans often went to wealthier farmers rather than the poor farmers for whom the program was intended. Black farmers assumed many of the programs were for whites only, and did not apply. Or they decided that the costs of upsetting the applecart were higher than the costs of managing without those resources. As pressure mounted on the agricultural organizations to appoint or elect African Americans, whites turned to intimidation, tokenism and duplicity, such as getting permission to include the name of an African American on a committee, but then not telling the person which committee or when they met. His name was sought to satisfy requirements, but his participation was not wanted.

During early 1964, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was preparing for the Freedom Summer, and the US Commission on Civil Rights turned its attention to the USDA. This 6-person commission made investigations and reports but had no enforcement power. The National Sharecroppers Fund had filed nine discrimination cases with the Secretary of Agriculture, Orville Freeman, but Freeman had reported that all Mississippi USDA agencies had denied discrimination, as if that was a fact. The commission interviewers questioned USDA agents throughout the South, and observed unchallenged malpractice in powerful southern USDA county offices. Black farmers had not received information about new trends or programs or loans. Black farmers often received no notices of conservation service or other committee elections, or even of their right to vote.

Successful Black farmers made their own way, finding sources of loans outside pf the government agencies that should have helped them. Many Black farmers had no idea they even had access to USDA. Many USDA committees throughout the South controlled which farmers received information. Acreage allotment increases went to the “committeemen. White land-grant universities paid lip service to the support of civil rights, but distributed the resources as they liked.

Towards the end of the Freedom Summer of 1964, civil rights activists moved into helping African Americans benefit from federal programs. They also hoped to get Black farmers onto committees where they could have influence by force of numbers. Many believed the jobs were for whites only. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers were squeezed out when committee work involved calculations they had never been taught to do, or understanding complex farm programs.

This left the field open for white agents to ignore deceitful acreage measurements by white farmers. Surpluses were not destroyed, even in cases where they were hundreds of acres in excess. Some ballot boxes were stuffed, some elections were declared invalid. In order to preserve central control and shore up apparent participation, committee members sometimes convinced farmers of the value of programs that did not help them.

Court jurisdiction in disputes was replaced by powerful committees that were not neutral, and did not rely on established precedent. Farmers were at the mercy of the personal preferences of the committeemen.

SNCC workers saw how sharecroppers did not have access to their accounts, and Willie Mae Robinson in Mississippi, for example, picked 20 bales of cotton in 1962, that should have brought her $1870. But she was only given $3.

Black farmers. Photo USDA

In 1963, when Martin Luther King Jr gave his “I Have a Dream” speech at the March on Washington, civil rights leaders there urged John Lewis, the SNCC chair, to tone down his criticism of the Kennedy administration for unlawful arrests and failure to promote the civil rights bill. SNCC was seen as outside the main campaign for civil rights. When farmers in Mississippi provided housing for the SNCC workers, they suffered economic reprisals. When they registered to vote, they risked losing their homes and their jobs. Sharecroppers had no bargaining chips. One key for progress was to get Black farmers to stand for seats on the Conservation Service committees.

In 1965, The Conservation Service (ASCS) took steps to make sure all farmers had the chance to vote, and that the elections would be fair. But there was widespread fraud and intimidation, which the Conservation Service chose to ignore. Sometimes Black farmers found their names had been added to the ballot in an effort to dilute Black votes, preventing any African American farmers getting seats on the committee. Or ballots included only Black nominees chosen by white committees for their cooperation with whites rather than their support of Black farmers. “Discouragement” and humiliating treatment of this sort was widespread. Black farm wives in one county had been required to collect their own ballot slips at the office instead of receiving them in the mail like everyone else. Whites exacted a price for Black activism, such as registering to vote. Physical intimidation and violence, firing from jobs, and petty insults, such as using only first names for Black people, were common.

All-black advisory committees were set up to assist white ASCS committees, although this was not the equal participation mandated for federal programs. Unsurprisingly, white committees continued to run the show. SNCC workers offered workshops and stressed how important participation in ASCS elections was. They gave support by putting opaque election rules into plain English, and using stick-figure diagrams to explain elections, so farmers could understand what options they had.

The next year, Horace Godfrey, the head of ASCS, ordered counties to hire non-whites for temporary summer jobs at the same percentage of the population as whites. This was challenging in high-majority Black counties, and with few Black farmers owning cars. Also, the numbers of Black farmers were declining, leaving whites more control. However, overall, Godfrey’s hiring initiative became the best civil rights action taken by any USDA administrator in the 1960s. This did not smoothly lead to the hiring of more Black farmers for permanent jobs, although the ASCS set up a training program for clerical positions, which helped a few individuals each year and cracked the segregation within ASCS.

1965 included an escalation of violence, with the assassination of Malcolm X, the police brutality towards the marchers in Selma, President Johnson’s increase of troops in the Vietnam War, and the introduction of the draft. Press attention turned towards the war and away from civil rights.

In July 1965, Nyle Brady (the soil scientist), as the USDA’s director of science and education, claimed that the Extension Service had contacted 312,000 non-white southern farmers. Census numbers showed that there were less than 200,000 nonwhite farmers in the South.

Many elections were rigged, but Washington refused to take corrective action, or even admit anything was wrong. In July 1966 in Lowndes County, Alabama there was such blatant fraud that Stokely Carmichael reflected “If the government can spend billions of dollars to kill people in Vietnam to assure free elections, then they had better spend some of those dollars to assure free elections in the Lowndes County ASCS.” Stokely Carmichael led SNCC away from civil rights organizations including their white allies and focused more on color rather than class. He introduced the Black Power slogan, which meant different things to different people, perhaps as “Defund the Police” does in our times. His belligerent words alienated John Lewis, Charles Sherrod and Julian Bond, who all resigned from SNCC in 1966.The last of the white allies left in the spring of 1967, a step that was painful to many of them. The representation of Black farmers on ASCS suffered as a result of this pivot of attention in the SNCC.

During 1968, support from civil rights workers for southern Black farmers dwindled as political activists focused on anti-war efforts. Increasingly, the focus of discrimination included women, who were extremely rare within USDA. In a summary of minorities on county committees, there were no women at all. Beginning to employ Black people and white women changed the office culture. Training programs began for minorities (and women?), to qualify them for jobs in ASCS.

Integrating 4H camps proved too challenging for some white extension administrators, who cancelled the whole program rather than integrate. I am reminded of the closing of the white public swimming pool in one county in Virginia, by those in power, who would not integrate. The county remained without a public swimming pool for decades.

Young black farm-worker. Photo USDA

In 1981, the USDA had disbanded its Office of Civil Rights and stopped responding to farmers who had filed complaints. The US Commission on Civil Rights reported in 1982 on continued injustice in every program, which resembled too much the discrimination exposed in its 1965 report. By 1982 only 33,000 Black farmers remained in the South. Isidoro Rodriguez headed the Office of Minority Affairs from 1981, and in a bid to support the Republicans, dropped civil rights guidelines that were contrary to the Reagan administration. Investigations dropped from 90 a year to zero. He cut staff by ten and returned $475,000 in unspent funds. He was fired in 1983.

The 1984 House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing included as a witness, Timothy Pigford, who went on to file a class action suit, after eight years of struggling to afford to farm in the teeth of very bad advice and no financial assistance from the USDA. The 1999 Pigford v. Glickman class action suit won compensation for discrimination occurring after 1981 claims of discrimination. (The two-year statute of limitations was extended to cover the longer period.)  Theoretically, before that date, the office of Civil Rights had dealt with complaints, although as we have seen, this was a big whitewash.

As a result of Pigford, farmers lacking incomplete documentation of their claim could get a cash payment of $50,000 and forgiveness of debts owed to the USDA. Farmers with documentation had no cap on what they could recover. Judge Friedman commented that the billions of dollars due to farmers for discrimination would show that the USDA was not above the law and remind them of the consequences of discrimination.

The payment of compensation resulting from Pigford claims was delayed in some cases for a decade, until February 2010 when the Obama administration announced a $1.25 billion settlement with African American farmers.

Pete Daniel. Photo Wake Forest Magazine

Memory fades and the history of the civil rights movement is mythologized as a string of heroes, achievements and successes. Like the earlier faked compliance reports, the success story has edited out conflicts, obstruction of justice and the many individual and small group efforts to bring justice. The USDA spoke of equal opportunity even as it obscured inequities in lending and provision of information and assistance and discriminated in choosing employees, and as it continued bad policies that drove more African American farmers off the land. Resources went to relatively wealthy white farmers

To compound the problems of Black farmers, many died without making a will, and all the heirs inherited the farm. Any heir could later sell their share outside the family to someone who could force a partition sale. Problems with Heirs’ Property caused a further loss of farming land in the African American community.

In July 1987 only 33 of 2,520 county directors in the nation were Black. Most of the offices by then were staffed by white women. All the Good Old Boys were resisting having a Black man in charge.

After Pigford, the USDA did backslide, and in 2009, Tom Vilsack as the incoming Secretary of Agriculture, inherited 11,000 unprocessed civil rights complaints, several class action suits and 113,000 employee discrimination complaints. In November 1999, Native American farmers had filed a suit that led to a $760million fund to pay damages, as well as cancelled debts. Hispanics sued in 2000. Women sued and were added to the Hispanic farmers’ case. These cases opened the way for more claims from other minorities who had suffered discrimination.

Lloyd Wright on his family farm in Montross, VA.Lloyd Wright, former chief of civil rights under President Bill Clinton—and himself a farmer—on his family farm in Montross, Virginia. Photo Donnamaria Jones

No financial settlement makes up for humiliation, distress and loss, and many of these farmers had already lost their land by the time they received money. It is past time we treated everyone with decency and justice.

Click the link for an interview with Pete Daniel and Jess Gilbert on Edge Effects

https://edgeeffects.net/pete-daniel-jess-gilbert/

My recent work in Growing for Market, Mother Earth News and pepper research

Seed saving and processing

August 2020 Growing for Market magazine

Heads up everyone saving seed from their tomatoes, melons, or squash this year, in anticipation of possible seed shortages next spring! Or because you have the time at home to figure out how to do it, and you’re around to stir the bucket three times a day! I have an article on wet seed processing in the August issue of Growing for Market magazine.

Roma tomatoes cut in half for seed extraction.
Photo Pam Dawling

Also see my post on washing and drying tomato seeds, with lots of photos.

The next issue will have my article on dry seed processing (think beans, peas, okra, lettuce).

The current issue also has a couple of interesting articles on how to move step-by-step towards no-till growing, or at least minimum-till. Many gardeners and farmers have floundered while making this transition, so learn from the experienced! And there’s an article by Julia Shanks on balance sheets, for those intending to make a living farming.


Winter Cover Crops for Gardeners

A no-till cover crop mix of winter rye, hairy vetch, Austrian winter peas and crimson clover.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

I have a workshop on Winter Cover Crops for Gardeners as part of the Mother Earth News Fair Online Winter Gardening Course. The Winter Gardening Course features 7 videos, each 21-44 minutes long. Mine’s 32 minutes on cover crops.

You can enroll for the 8-course Winter Gardening Course for $20.

Or choose the 2020 all-access course bundle of 21 courses (over 100 videos) for $150.

Or before summer is over, go for the $120, 8 course (56 videos) Summer Bundle.

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What went wrong with our hoophouse peppers in 2020?

Diseased hoophouse pepper plant.
Photo Pam Dawling

Our 2020 hoophouse peppers were stunted, crinkled, yellowing and failed to thrive.

Possibilities:

  1. Too cold in edge bed A (drafts under baseboard)?
  2. Too wet in bed A (rainwater under baseboard, not much drying out due to shade of tomatoes)?
  3. Nutsedge poisoning: roots exude something that inhibits other plants?
  4. Soil too salty?
  5. Soil nutrients poor?
  6. Aphids
  7. Aphids spread a virus? (plants were crinkled)
  8. Are we sowing hoophouse peppers too early? In cells that are too big?
  9. Are we transplanting hoophouse peppers too early? Keeping them in in cells that are too small?

Possible solutions

  1. Be sure to block drafts all winter. Try not to plant peppers in cold edge beds.
  2. Close one row of driptape if soil in edge bed A seems excessively wet compared to other beds. Re-dig outside moat to keep soil water out.
  3. Do better about weeding out nutsedge. Investigate soil properties that encourage nutsedge.
  4. Use beds C and E instead of middle bed D when doing salt water wash down. Poke out holes in sprinkler, ensure all are working. Get a better sprinkler.
  5. Do soil tests in October and remediate soil as needed.
  6. We could monitor for pests and act promptly
  7. Deal with aphids and avoid viral diseases
  8. Sow later, in smaller cells.
  9. Transplant later, after potting up to bigger cells or pots.

Summary of ideas after our meeting and reading 2020 records:

  • Use fresh seed
  • Go back to deep 6 cells for sowing, (smaller than R38)
  • Use more appropriately warm growing conditions. Peppers don’t recover well from setbacks. They remain stunted long term.
  • Test soil and act accordingly.
  • Ensure salt wash-down reaches the edge beds.
  • If planting in chilly edge beds, ensure the baseboards are not drafty.
  • Don’t overwater.
  • Remove nutsedge whenever we see it
  • Monitor for pests; deal with aphids to avoid long-term virus diseases.
Pepper plant with aphids. Photo Pam Dawling

Hoophouse Pepper Records Research

  • We have been sowing 2/3 for a 4/7 transplant date. That’s maybe too long. 9 weeks.
  • 2/3/20 Hphs peppers sown as scheduled. Used R38s rather than usual deep 6s. It’s recommended not to sow peppers in large cells – they are slow growing, and it’s hard to get the watering right in large cells.
  • 2/11 -2/14 Peppers germinated. We had some trouble with keeping the germinating chambers up to temperature because we didn’t have the right lightbulbs.
  • 2/15 – 2/17 Heat mats not all plugged in or working right.
  • 2/21 resowed Gilboa. PeaceWork was old seed, poor vigor? Or low germ rate?
  • 2/28 Gilboa resows had been in tent but weren’t actually germinated. Back in fridge.
  • 3/4 – 3/9 Potted up. Is this true? R38s don’t normally get potted up. Maybe due to patchy germination?
  • 3/16 In ghs drafty zone
  • 4/5 Ghs door left open all night
  • 4/12 Ghs door left open all night again.
Hoophouse peppers in a better year!
Photo Pam Dawling

Info from Sustainable Market Farming  and The Year-Round Hoophouse

  • Sow 8-10 weeks before you intend to transplant.
  • We used to sow our hoophouse peppers 1/17, then 1/24, then 1/31, then 2/3.
  • Minimum temperature for germination is 60F, optimum 68-95F.
  • Peppers seem to produce stockier plants if soil temperatures are 65-68F, max 80F daytime, min 60F at night after germination. Use a soil thermometer.
  • Transplants getting slightly cooler nights will grow sturdier plants that flower later and have more potential for big yields. Rowcover at night if 40F or below.
  • After third true leaf, can reduce night temp to 54F. May increase yields.
  • But, permanently stunted by conditions that are too cold.
  • Keeping them in pots or cells that are too small will set them back. If transplanting is delayed, pot up to larger size, eg tomato pots.
  • Pot up when a few true leaves appear. After that no heat mat needed.
  • We moved our transplanting date from 4/1 to 4/7 (one week after tomatoes is usual)
  • Transplant at 6-9 weeks, with 4 or 5 true leaves, not yet flowering. OK if they are big.
  • Soil for transplanting should be at least 60F, ideally 68F
  • Avoid transplant shock. Soil needs to be damp before, during and after transplanting. Avoid root damage or bending. Shade if hot, sunny or breezy.
  • For the first week after transplanting, keep warm.
  • Established peppers benefit from 70-75F days, 64-68F nights
  • Maintain sufficient levels of boron, calcium, phosphorus.
  • Monitor and control aphids and thrips to prevent the diseases they vector.
  • An inch of water per week is about right.
  • Foliar feeding with fish or seaweed emulsion once a week after fruit set.
  • 65-80 days from transplant to full-size immature fruits, and another 2-4 weeks to ripe fruit.
  • Yields should be 5-18 lbs/10ft.

Ideas after rereading those sources

  • We might do better to set the sowing date a week later (2/10), keep the transplant date at 4/7 and aim for an 8 week-old transplant? (Avoid colder conditions)
  • We need to pay more attention to temperatures of germination, seedlings and potted transplants. Write the goal temperatures on the Seedlings Schedule
  • We need to pay more attention to not overwatering seedlings. Write that on the Seedlings Schedule too.

Storing potatoes

Potato crates in our root cellar.
Photo Nina Gentle

Storing potatoes

This is part of a monthly series on growing potatoes, a dietary staple.

PART ONE: Planting potatoes (April)

PART TWO: Growing potatoes (May)

PART THREE: Potato pests and diseases (June)

PART FOUR: Harvesting potatoes (July)

PART FIVE: Storing potatoes (August)

PART SIX: Planning to grow potatoes again (September)

I have a whole chapter about potatoes in my book, Sustainable Market Farming, and another on root cellars (including construction), where much of this information can be found.

This year’s new Victory Gardeners now need to learn how to store your harvest, so it can supply your household for as long a s possible. As more commercial growers aim to produce local food sustainably year-round, the storage of vegetables for sale over the winter becomes important. Understanding the needs of different crops can help reduce your electricity bill and carbon footprint, and maximize the amount of produce you can store for later sale. Only critical crops need refrigeration. Potatoes should not be refrigerated. Many others may be stored without electricity, perhaps in buildings that serve other uses at the height of the growing season.

Our in-ground root cellar. Photo McCune Porter

A 1978 publication from Washington State University Extension, Storing Vegetables and Fruits at Home, is a good introduction to alternatives to refrigerated storage, using pits, clamps and root cellars. There is also good information in USDA Agriculture Handbook 66. 2016 revision. Many growers are still using the 1986 version, but it’s worth checking newer recommendations and additional advice. UMass Extension has a good site on post-harvest and storage resources. Nancy and Mike Bubel’s book Root Cellaring has a wealth of information, including how to build a root cellar.

Don’t expect a one-shed-fits-all solution to crop storage. I identify five different sets of storage requirements, for different storage crops. This one is specific to potatoes, which don’t want colder conditions: Cool and moist: 40°F–50°F (5°C–10°C), 85%–90% humidity. With a good in-ground root cellar, potatoes can be stored for 5-8 months, but other options can also work. A max-min thermometer will help you keep the storage space in the right range.

We removed all the soil to renovate our root cellar roof. Photo McCune Porter

Reasonable expectations

Only store sound potatoes. Garbage in, garbage out. Damaged and poor quality vegetables will not store well. Always handle all crops for long-term storage gently, to avoid bruising. For long-term storage, make sure crops are fully mature but not over-mature when you harvest. Potatoes need firm skins that don’t rub off when you rub with a thumb. This is different from some crops, such as beets and sweet potatoes, that don’t have a “ripe” stage, but are ready when they reach the size you like. Very small vegetables don’t store well. Expect that a small percentage of your crops will go bad in storage — it’s not a sign of failure, just a reminder that life has limitations.

Cure, then store

Potatoes are one of those vegetables that need to cure before storage in conditions that are different from those needed for storage. Curing allows skins to harden and some of the starches to convert to sugars. See the post on Harvesting Potatoes in July. Potatoes need curing in moist air (90% humidity) for one to two weeks at 60°F–75°F (15°C–24°C). You may be surprised at how warm this is. Wounds in the skin will not heal below 50°F (10°C).

We sort our potatoes after two weeks of curing and find this usually reduces the chance of rot so that we don’t need to sort again. With potatoes, the rate of deterioration drops right down after a few weeks. Remember to keep white potatoes in the dark while curing as well as during storage.

When filling stackable crates, leave space for the crates to lock into each other.
Photo Nina Gentle

Preparation for storage

Plan your storage sites, buy a thermometer for each site, and gather suitable containers. Clean and prepare your storage space before going out to do a big harvest. Wood crates are good for nostalgia and agritourism, but plastic is kinder on aging backs and less likely to harbor diseases. Containers should rest on shelves, pallets or blocks of some kind, and not be set on bare concrete floors. This helps improve ventilation and reduce condensation.

For traditional storage without refrigeration, potatoes (and most other root crops) store best unwashed (less wrinkling), though this can make them harder to clean later. If you might not be able to keep temperatures low enough, choose stackable crates rather than closed bags. When you have choice in the matter, try to harvest potatoes from relatively dry soil, so they are less likely to grow mold. The packing of your containers should allow for airflow, but you don’t want the produce to shrivel up, so be observant. Sometimes night ventilation offers cooler, drier air than you can get in the daytime. Keeping root cellar temperatures within a narrow range takes human intervention, or sophisticated thermostats and vents. If needed, electric fans can be used to force air through a building.

Ethylene

Ethylene is an odorless, colorless gas, generally associated with ripening, sprouting and rotting. Chilling, wounding and pathogen attack can all induce ethylene formation in damaged crops.

Some crops, including most cut greens, are not very sensitive to ethylene and so can be stored in the same space as ethylene-producing crops. Potatoes are very sensitive to ethylene and will sprout in a high-ethylene environment.

Some crops, such as ripening fruits, produce ethylene gas while in storage. Don’t be tempted to set that bargain box of very ripe bananas you bought on the way home near anything you don’t want to sprout or ripen further. Propane heaters and combustion engines produce ethylene. Be careful if using your garage to store potatoes.

Our 10’ x 11.5’ (3 x 3.5 m) cellar will hold 10,800 pounds (4900 kg), or around 5 tons (tonnes)of potatoes. Photo Pam Dawling

Basement storage rooms and root cellars

Traditional root cellars are made by excavating a large hole near the house, lining it with block or stone-work walls, casting a well-supported and well-insulated concrete roof, then covering the top with a big mound of soil. The doorway may have bulkhead doors or an entry way with additional doors. The more modern version is to construct an insulated cellar in the basement of a building such as a CSA distribution barn or your house. See the Bubels’ book, or the Washington State publication for drawings and instructions on making these. Provide wide doorways with ground-level access if possible (roll that garden cart right in!). Good lighting and drainage are important, so you can see if everything is storing well, or hose the shelves and floor down if it isn’t. Mouse-proofing is worth considering upfront. Our 10’ x 11.5’ (3 x 3.5 m) cellar will hold 360 crates with an ample central path. That’s 10,800 pounds (4900 kg), or around 5 tons (tonnes).

Black snakes control mice in the root cellar. Photo by Nina Gentle

 Root Cellar Ecosystem

Store potatoes in a moist, completely dark cellar, ideally at 40°F (5°C), up to 50°F (10°C). Ventilate as needed during times of cool temperatures, to maintain the cellar in the ideal range. We need to actively manage conditions in our root cellar to cure the potatoes and help them store well. We have no automated ventilation, or even ventilation ducts. We simply leave the door open at night when we want to cool it down, or in the daytime in winter. We just choose a time when the forecast temperature is in the range we’re aiming for. Yes, mice do come in the open door! We encourage black snakes to live in our cellar, to keep the mice under control. (How do we encourage snakes? I mean we don’t drive them out, and if we need to, we move one or two in there.) This can be a bit unnerving, as the cellar is dark. (We chose not to have a light, as leaving it on by accident could cause a lot of potato greening before we noticed our mistake.) We have developed a special door-opening technique so we can co-exist with the snakes, who like to hang out on the top of the doorframe. We unlatch the door, open it a crack, then bang it closed, before opening it fully. Any resting snakes have by then dropped to the floor where we can see them and avoid them. (No snakes have been hurt in this process!) People who don’t like snakes will be really motivated to fit a rodent-proof vent system!

I wrote a blog post about Root cellar potato storage, on 8/07/2018. It includes a fuller version of our Root Cellar Warden instructions below. Here is the shorter, post-harvest version of our “Root Cellar Warden” instructions:

  • After the potato harvest, the potatoes need to be at 60-75F (15-24C) with good ventilation for two weeks. Leave the door open on mild nights (or days) every 2 or 3 days, and close it later. The newly harvested potato is still respiring and needs fresh air. Lack of sufficient oxygen during curing results in Black Heart, a condition where the tubers develop nasty black lumps of dead tissue in the centers, so be sure to provide good ventilation during curing.
  • After 14 days, the potatoes need sorting to remove Use First and Compost ones. Usually this is done by bringing the crates outdoors. You will need buckets, rags, gloves. It’s important to do this in the 3rd week after harvest, and not leave it longer, to minimize the spread of rot. Keep the crates away from walls, which sometimes collect condensation. The potatoes benefit from the airflow if they are not touching the walls.
  • After 14 days, cool the cellar whenever a mild night or chilly day is forecast, down to 40-45F (4.5-7C).
Sorting potatoes two weeks after harvest.
Photo Wren Vile

Dormancy Requirements of Potatoes

We researched the dormancy requirements of potatoes in an effort to store ours so they don’t sprout when we don’t want them to.

What I know so far about dormancy is that potatoes need a dormancy period of 4-8 weeks after harvest before they will sprout. So if you plan to dig up an early crop and immediately replant some of the potatoes for a later crop, take this into account. Get around this problem by refrigerating them for 16 days, then chitting them in the light for 2 weeks. The company of apples, bananas or onions will help them sprout by emitting ethylene.

To avoid sprouting, keep the potatoes below 50F (10C) once they are more than a month from harvest, avoid excess moisture, and avoid “physiological aging” of the potatoes, caused by stressing them with fluctuating temperatures, among other things. If eating potatoes do start to develop sprouts, it’s a good idea to rub off the sprouts as soon as possible, because the sprouting process affects the flavor, making them sweet in the same way that low temperatures do.

I have also written blog posts about

Potato Research on Harvest and Storage,

What Makes Potatoes Sprout,

How to Deal with Green Potatoes (one of my most-read blog posts!)

and if you still want to read more about potatoes,

Book Review “Potato: a history of the propitious esculent” John Reader, Yale University Press 2008

Read a whole book about the potato. Abe Books, John Reader

Organic and Alternative Methods for Potato Sprout Control in Storage

Mary Jo Frazier and colleagues at the University of Idaho Extension, in 2004, researched the use of essential oils of mint and cloves to inhibit sprouting in storage. These plant oils can add 20-30 days storage, and then need to be reapplied. There is the issue of flavors carrying over into the tubers.

Other biocontrols to reduce storage losses

There has been some USDA ARS (Agricultural Research Service) research into biological disease control for stored fruit and vegetables. It takes three directions:

  • Using biologicals such as Aspire yeast, Bio-Save Bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae) or chitins to form a semi-permeable film over the surface of the roots and fruits;
  • UV light to induce rot resistance. Primarily used for fruit;
  • Natural fungicides derived from jasmine and peaches, which induce disease resistance in the crop itself.

Currently these methods are only used by large operations, but in the future, they may be useful to small growers.

Potato harvest.
Photo Nina Gentle

Root Crops in August

Root Crops in August

Misato Rose Winter Radish.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
China Rose Winter Radish.   Monticello Shop

Root Crops to Plant in Central Virginia in August

Like July, August is not a good month for sowing many root crops in Virginia – it’s very hot. However, the daylight is getting shorter and so the hot part of the day is also getting shorter.  And the calendar is boxing us in. The month of August is when we establish crops that will feed us in the fall and winter.

Carrots:

On August 4, we sow our fall carrots, enough to store and feed us all winter. Twin Oaks can eat 30+ bags (50 lbs, 23 kg each) of carrots during the winter, so we try hard to grow a big crop of fall carrots. See Root Crops in May for more about sowing and growing carrots, including pre-emergence flame weeding.

Good irrigation is important for successful carrot growing in hot weather.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Carrots do very poorly with competition, so try to grow them in a bed that had only light weeds. You can use the Stale Seedbed Technique, where the bed is prepared ahead of time, and one or more flushes of weeds are germinated and flamed or hoed off. Carrots do well on raised beds, because the soil stays loose and the roots can easily grow deep.

Some people bake old carrot seed to dilute the good new seed, to reduce the thinning work and the wasted seeds. Some people sow in single rows 8-10” (20-25cm) apart. Others sow in bands 2″ (5 cm) wide, at 8” (20cm) apart, with one length of drip-tape serving two bands in one 16-24″ (40-60 cm) bed.

Hard rain in the first 3 or 4 days after planting can dry to a crust that could prevent emergence. If you get heavy rain, irrigate for half an hour each day afterwards until the carrots emerge. Some people use shade cloth to help keep the soil surface moist.

We flame summer carrots on day 4 after sowing, because we have found that carrots can emerge on day 5 in summer temperatures, despite longer times given in the charts. The idea is to flame the beds the day before the carrots are due to emerge.

Table of days to germination of beets and carrots at various temperatures

Days to Germinate 50°F (10°C) 59°F (15°C) 68°F (20°C) 77°F (25°C) 86°F (30°C) 95°F (35°C)
Carrots 17.3 10.1 6.9 6.2 6.0 8.6
Beets 16.7 9.7 6.2 5.0 4.5 4.6

If we are unable to get our fall carrot sowing finished in early August, we sow them in late August. We try to avoid sowing in the middle of August when the hordes of baby grasshoppers emerge. If we have to sow in the middle of August, we use hoops and fine mesh ProtekNet, battened down well around the edges to keep the pests out. The hoops hold the netting up above the foliage, keeping it inaccessible to insects.

Beets

Beets can be tricky to germinate in hot weather, but to get a good storable-sized root, we need to get them established by 8/20 at the latest. (Our first frost date is 10/15 to give you an idea of when things cool down.) We get ready to sow on 8/1, but sometimes we wait for a cooler spell. I like the Cylindra beet. The shape is long (good for slicing), the skins come off easily, and the flavor is very sweet and the texture tender.

Young Cylindra beets.
Photo Wren Vile

We direct sow either dry beet seed, or some we have presoaked for 1-2 hours. Beet seed drowns easily: don’t use too much water or soak for too long.  Either way, sow 1/2″-1″ (1-2.5 cm) deep, tamp the soil firmly so that the seed is in good contact with the soil and its life-saving water supply. Keep the row damp, by watering daily as needed for the 4-6 days they take to emerge. Beets prefer 50°F–85°F (10°C–29°C). Some people lay boards over the seeded rows but then you have to be sure to check frequently and remove the boards when the seedlings emerge. Other options include covering the beds with shadecloth on hoops, or making some other temporary screen to the south side.

Turnips:

I mentioned turnips in July as a crop to harvest. That was the spring-sown turnips. We sow our fall turnips 8/15 or up until 9/15 (our absolute latest). Turnips can be up the next day, even at 95°F (35°C). Most will be Purple Top White Globe for winter storage. Because of the high populations of harlequin bugs, and sometimes aphids or flea beetles, and cabbage caterpillars, we hoop and net all our fall brassicas. We like ProtekNet (for smaller amounts than a whole roll, try Johnnys)

Brassica transplants under ProtekNet. (I couldn’t find a photo with turnips) Photo Bridget Aleshire

Winter radish:

In central Virginia, we sow winter radish on August 4. They have no trouble germinating at high temperatures. We like to grow Misato Rose, Miyashige Daikon and Shunkyo Semi-Long.

China Rose winter radish.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Kohlrabi:

Early Purple Vienna and Early White Vienna can still be sown here in August. They take only 60 days from sowing to harvest. They can be direct sown or transplanted from flats or an outdoor nursery seedbed. Kohlrabi is hardy to maybe 15°F (-9.4°C). It doesn’t get that cold here before the beginning of November, so counting back 31 days in October, plus 30 in September, plus 31 in August – that’s 92 days already, more than enough. We can sow kohlrabi in early August and get a crop at the end of October.

Purple kohlrabi
Photo Small Farm Central

For fall brassica crops, we use an outdoor nursery seedbed and bare root transplants, because this fits best with our facilities and our style. Having the seedlings directly in the soil “drought-proofs” them to some extent; they can form deep roots and don’t dry out so fast. Other people might prefer to sow in flats.

We cover the beds with ProtekNet insect mesh on wire hoops until the plants are big enough to stand up for themselves against “pest bullying”. Overly thick rowcover or rowcover resting directly on the plants can make the seedlings more likely to die of fungal diseases in hot weather – good airflow is vital.

We aim to transplant most brassicas at four true leaves (3-4 weeks after sowing). In hot weather, use younger transplants than you would in spring, because larger plants can wilt from high transpiration losses. If we find ourselves transplanting older plants, we remove a couple of the older leaves to reduce these losses.

Fall radishes:

Easter Egg radish seedlings in early September.
Photo Pam Dawling

We direct sow small radishes from mid-August (best) to mid-September (latest). Our favorite is Easter Egg, a mix with a range of colors that don’t all mature on the same day, but feed us over a couple of weeks. They are less likely to get fibrous than Cherry Belle or Sparkler types.

Root Crops to Harvest in Central Virginia in August

Carrots:

I usually reckon on three months from sowing to harvest for carrots, but they can be faster in warm weather. See Root Crops in June for more on carrots. If you sowed carrots in May, they should be ready to harvest in August. Don’t delay or they will become woody in texture and soapy in flavor. I suppose they are still nutritious, so if this has happened to you, blend into soups or make flavorful stews.

Turnip thinnings:

A few weeks after sowing, you will need to thin your turnips. You can use the tiny thinnings as microgreens for salad, and the bigger ones (with marble-sized turnips attached) can be gently steamed or braised.

Potatoes being harvested.
Credit Kathryn Simmons

Potatoes:

Depending when you planted your potatoes, they could be ready from mid-June onwards. They take about 4 months to reach maturity, so during August, potatoes planted in April will become ready.

See Potato Harvesting and Root Crops in June for more on harvesting. For best storability, wait until two weeks after tops have died to harvest. During that time, the skins will toughen up and you’ll have fewer harvest injuries. Potatoes can bruise! They may look tough and inert, but they are living plant matter and should not be thrown or banged about. To test if potatoes are ready to store, dig up two potatoes and rub them together, or rub them firmly with your thumb. If the skins rub off, wait a couple of days before trying again. If the skins are strong, go ahead and harvest. see next weekk’s post for more on storing potatoes.

Other Root Crop Tasks in Central Virginia in August: sorting potatoes, thinning carrots and turnips

Sort potatoes

Sort potatoes two weeks after storing. Transfer the potatoes individually into clean crates, checking them for any dampness or softness. We triage (sort into three categories); those good to continue in storage, those fit only for the compost bin and anything we’re not sure about, but hope is not a total loss. We take these optimistically to our kitchen and plan to use them soon, if necessary cutting away bad portions. We find that this single sorting two weeks after putting the potatoes into storage can make all the difference. Most potatoes have “declared themselves” as fit or not by this point. Removing the rotting ones prevents the rot spreading. Often this is the only sorting we do. If you have time (or no bags of pasta in the pantry), you could aim to sort once a month until deep in the winter.

Sorting potatoes two weeks after harvest, to remove problems.
Photo Wren Vile

Ventilate the root cellar every few nights when it is coolest. Gradually get temperature down to 65°F (18°C). Try not to have temperature reversals. You don’t want to chill the potatoes yet – they are still breathing and need time to settle into dormancy.

Next week’s post will be devoted to storing potatoes successfully. It will be Part 5 of my Potatoes series. If you’re reading this in the southern hemisphere, you can use the Search box to find information of planting potatoes. Just add or subtract six months from my accounts.

Carrot thinning:

It is much easier to see the carrots, and they grow better if the first flush of weeds has been flamed off. Get to the initial thinning of carrots as soon as you can, spacing to about 1” (2.5 cm) apart, weeding at the same time. We usually have someone with good eyesight and hand-eye co-ordination hoe between the rows the day before the hand-weeding. If you are in an area with Carrot Rust Fly (Carrot Root Fly), remove all thinnings and broken foliage from the field, so you don’t lure the low-flying pest with the wonderful smell of the broken leaves. We do a second thinning, to 3” (8cm) at the stage when the baby carrots can be used for salads. If we get more weeds, we might do another round of weeding before harvesting the full size carrots. If carrots are spaced too widely, they will be more likely to split, and the overall yield will be reduced.

Carrot row thinned to one inch.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

Mowing:

Keep edges mowed, and any buckwheat cover crop not seeding, so that you don’t encourage grasshoppers.

Special Root Crop Topic for August in Central Virginia: Sowing and transplanting when soils are hot.

There are definitely some challenges to getting seeds germinated in hot weather. And a different set of challenges to transplanting (not so applicable to root crops, as most are direct-seeded.)

 Here are some tips to try:

  • Choose suitable varieties. Read the catalog descriptions carefully. Look for flavor, productivity, disease resistance and cold-hardiness as well as heat-resistance. The crops you sow now need to emerge in hot weather and keep growing into cold weather.
  • Consider direct-seeding crops rather than transplanting them. They can be more cold-tolerant, probably because there’s no damage to the taproot. And transplants can struggle to recover from transplanting when it’s very hot.
  • Good soil preparation is important. Avoid over-cultivating before planting, as this makes crusting more likely.
  • Water a day ahead of sowing or transplanting, to reduce the need to water copiously afterwards. Pre-water furrows for large-seeded crops (I can’t think of any root crops with large seeds, off the top of my head).
  • Plant seeds deeper than you would in spring, as the soil is already warm and you want to guard against the seeds drying out. In cold weather we are guarding against seed rotting in cold wet soil.
  • You could sprinkle sand, grass clippings, straw or sawdust lightly along the rows.
  • After sowing, watering should be shallow and frequent, using fresh-drawn cold water, not something from a hose in the sunshine. For close-planted small seeded crops, use overhead sprinklers. Chilled water, night watering, and even ice on top of the rows can help reduce soil temperatures as well as supplying vital moisture.
If using a nursery seed bed, you can put ice cubes on top of rows of seeds in hot weather to help cool the soil.
Photo Bell Oaks

Sowing when soils are hot

Check the germination requirements for your crop (see Sustainable Market Farming), and the expected number of days to emergence under your field conditions, and use a soil thermometer.

If the soil temperature is too high for good germination, cool a small part of the outdoors. You could use the shade from other plants, shadecloth, boards, or damp burlap bags. For crops you normally direct seed, consider cooling a small nursery bed for your seedlings and transplanting later.

If outdoors is too challengingly hot, start your seeds indoors. Put a sown flat in a plastic bag in your refrigerator or in a cool room. Try the basement floor, perhaps. Cover flats with wet newspapers until the seedlings emerge. You could use plug flats or soil blocks rather than open flats, to reduce transplant shock.

Soaking seeds – a help when temperatures are high and soils are dry.

The length of time to soak a seed depends on its size: bigger seeds can benefit from a longer soak. Soak large seeds like beans and peas overnight before planting. It helps them get all the water they need to absorb for the initial sprouting. After that the smaller amounts needed to emerge are more easily found. Don’t soak legumes so long that the seed coat splits, or they lose nutrients and may get attacked by fungi.

Smaller seeds may only need to soak for 1-2 hours. I suspect that when I’ve had failures with soaked beet seeds, I soaked them for too long and they suffocated from a shortage of oxygen. Small seeds that have been soaked tend to clump together, so after draining off as much water as possible, mix them with a dry material like uncooked corn grits, oatmeal or bran, or use coffee grounds or sand to make them easier to sow thinly.

If you are using a seeder, spread your soaked or sprouted seeds out in a tray for a while to dry the surfaces. Experiment on a small scale ahead of a big planting, to make sure your seeder doesn’t just grind the seeds up, or snap off any little sprouts.

Pre-sprouting seeds to plant

To pre-sprout seeds, first soak them in a jar, then drain off the remaining water and put them in a cool place. Rinse twice a day, draining off the water. Sprout the seed just until you see it has germinated. For most crops 0.2″ (5 mm) is enough. Seeds with long sprouts are hard to plant without snapping off the shoot. If your pre-sprouting has got ahead of the weather or the soil conditions, slow down growth by putting the seed in the refrigerator. If you have leftover soaked or pre-sprouted seeds, you can store them in the fridge while the others come up, and then use them to fill gaps.

Virginia Farming Workshop, and Cuban AgroEcology Tour: La Palma Farm, Pinar del Rio Province

Introduction to Permaculture and Organic Farming and Gardening Workshop 2020

Saturday August 8, 2020 2.30-8.30 pm. Cost: $75

Day Spring Farm, 842 Buena Vista, Shacklefords, VA 23156

Click the link in the title for all the details. Social distancing and face coverings required.

Organic Farming Workshop 2020-1

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Cuban AgroEcology Tour: La Palma farm, Pinar del Rio Province

Roberto or Eduardo cultivating tobacco with oxen. La Palma, Pinar del Rio, Cuba
Photo Pam Dawling

Here’s another post about the Organic Growers School Agroecolgy Tour I participated in back when we could travel! I feel so fortunate to have made this trip this January. You can read about other parts of this Tour under the Cuban Agriculture category or at these links:

My Cuba farming trip.

Alamar Urban Organic Farm

Finca Marta

Finca Hoyo Bonito Bean Seed Bank

After our initial stay in Havana, we traveled west for three hours to stay a few days in the Viñales Valley in the province of Pinar del Rio.

Day 5 – Saturday January 11, morning

Our day started with an 8 am breakfast at our casa particulare in Viñales. We enjoyed fruit, tea, coffee, juice, cookies, bread, pancakes, cheese sandwiches, and ham. No eggs today.

The oxen team at la Palma, Pinar del Rio, Cuba
Photo by Pam Dawling

We took our tour bus to visit the ANAP (National Association of Small Farmers) cooperative agricultural project La Palma. ANAP farmers have less than 67 hectares each. According to Wikipedia, currently ANAP members produce 52% of the vegetables, 67% of the corn, and 85% of the tobacco grown in Cuba.

We met tobacco producers Roberto and Eduardo, who are brothers. Each farm is allowed a certain tobacco quota by the Cuban government. They are growing 40,000 tobacco plants as their quota and another 40,000 using a neighbor’s irrigated land in trade for their use of some dry land. Tobacco needs irrigated land, and their neighbor did not have the other resources to grow a tobacco crop this year. The government agreed to this swap because of the poor state of the national economy.

How to hang tobacco leaves on sticks. La Palma farm, Pinar del Rio, Cuba.
Photo Pam Dawling

La Palma also grows vegetables (tomatoes, beans with some interplanted corn plants to protect the beans from pests), and cassava. They use oxen for cultivating the fields. We had some juice, a taste of red mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota), and the chance to buy cigars for $2 each.

Tomato plants at La Palma, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, grown right up against the amazing limestone cliffs.
Photo by Pam Dawling

Next we paid a visit to a farm with a small cigar manufacturing business, Manolo Tobacco Farm, for a demonstration of cigar-making, and a chance to buy different kinds of cigars. All the cigars are rolled by hand and the men demonstrating the technique are also professional in engaging the audience. After rolling a cigar for us, the demonstrator lit it, showed how to smoke cigars and passed it round.

Closeup of limestone cliff at La Palma, Rio del Pinar, Cuba
Photo by Pam Dawling

See this video of cigar making at Manolo Tobacco Farm, made by Franny’s Farmacy, two of the other people on my Organic Growers School Tour:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_mXuImolMQ

At this place I was dismayed to find a nasty toilet (not the first of this trip): no seat, no paper, no flush. The toilet tank was not connected to a water supply. The water at the sink was very slow, and even though a bucket was provided, filling it to flush the toilet seemed very challenging. How can a tourist attraction have such terrible toilets? Why are there not more composting toilets?

Cuba, at least in the northwest, suffers from a shortage of water, and ancient mainline plumbing that leaks a lot. When we arrived at the José Martí International Airport in Havana, an announcement came over the loudspeaker that the water supply had been temporarily shut off to the restrooms. Havana has a natural port, but no river drains into it. See Rivers in Cuba map to appreciate the unfortunate geography!

The Albear Aqueduct was constructed in Havana in 1858, in a neoclassical style and still supplies 20% of Havana’s water. A marvel of mid-19th century engineering, the water comes from the de Vento springs by gravity. This fresh water helped the city reduce the terrible cholera epidemics and earned a gold medal at the 1878 Paris Exposition

Tourist transportation in Viñales: vintage cars and horse and cart.
Photo by Pam Dawling

Book Review: Grow Great Vegetables in Virginia, by Ira Wallace

Book Review: Grow Great Vegetables in Virginia, by Ira Wallace, Timber Press, 2020. 240 pages, line drawings and full color photos, $19.95.

Here is a great book for beginning gardeners or those new to Virginia. Ira’s friendly style will encourage everyone wanting to grow their own food, whether you’re one of the new “Covid Victory Gardeners”, newly retired from your day job, or newly determined to eat better food, this book will help you towards success. There are not many authors who could write five books at once, but Ira has given us five regional books for the southeast, with more details than her earlier Timber Press Guide to Vegetable Gardening in the Southeast. She has written for gardeners in Georgia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina.

I’m reviewing the Virginia book, which includes an introduction to Virginia, to gardening and to garden planning. Most of the book is a series of month-by-month lessons on what to plant; what you could be harvesting; and seasonal topics. The harvest lists are very encouraging! 11 crops in January, 27 in July, 46 in October. And there are the stored crops too. I like the month-by-month format. It enables new gardeners to learn just enough for each month’s tasks, and get ready to learn something new.

There’s a map of Virginia and the winter-hardiness zones, and at the back of the book there’s a chart of the average coldest temperatures in each of the zones. I wished for a heat zones map as well, because climate is not only about winter temperatures. Summer weather has quite an impact too! There are good descriptions of the growing season in various regions of Virginia, and the kinds of weather that come our way.

In the gardening intro, there is a table of organic sources of plant nutrients; encouragement to try succession planting (making several sowings over the course of the growing season to keep fresh supplies of that vegetable rolling in); and an explanation of planting “hills” (which might be better flat when it’s hot and dry). I remember being new in this country and not understanding hills at all, because books didn’t explain what they are, why you might use them, or how far apart they are. I proceeded to plant in rows, as I had done in England, and the crops grew fine. Eventually I learned what hills are. They’re not essential, and not necessarily better than rows, but maybe good for small home gardens. Read Ira’s book! She explains her information clearly, and her reasons for doing things the way she does. She explains why we transplant in the afternoon on an overcast or drizzly day. We live in a climate with hot summers, we don’t transplant in the mornings!

In the planning section, there is a full-page chart classifying vegetable crops as easy-to-grow, slightly more challenging and (undeniably) challenging. Each category is subdivided into warm season, cool season and “in need of extra space”, so no one need waste time on monstrous crops at the wrong time of year. Many paths to failure eliminated! There is encouragement to weigh up the value of keeping an old tomato planting going, versus getting a winter cover crop planted. Growing food well involves not forming attachments to particular plants! Ira says you can more than double the yield in a small garden by having some transplants ready to pop into any spaces that open up.

Planning includes being prepared for surprise opportunities to pop in a catch crop of something fast-maturing, and that idea is beside a list of crops by season in case you need more ideas. There are instructions on germination testing of seeds held over from the previous year, and a chart of seed longevity. Clearly one of Ira’s goals is to reduce your chances to fail and increase your chances to succeed! The perfect gardening mentor! And one who is not trying to part you from your money. Here are resources for finding used tools free or inexpensively priced ones, and the excellent advice to view garden gear in use before buying.

There is information about growing lettuce year round, starting with basic pointers that many books forget to tell you: lettuce needs light to germinate; don’t sow it too deep; store your seeds cool and dry – they won’t germinate well if they’ve got hot; make new sowings frequently; use shade in hot weather and put ice on the seedbed; sow more frequently in late summer and early fall and use cold-tolerant varieties even though it’s still hot when you are sowing, because as day length decreases, a one day delay in sowing can lead to a one week delay in harvest.

Ira Wallace, the author of Growing Great Vegetables in Virginia

There are useful charts of days to maturity, cold-hardiness of fall crops, and when to plant for fall harvest based on your first frost date. The fall garden is too often overlooked, and yet it is a wonderful chance to grow more fresh food and some to preserve for winter that will have been harvested closer to when you want to eat it. Ira reminds us to keep picking through the summer days, to encourage plants to keep producing more. When we get to the November chapter there is a section on Winter Garden Awareness. Although we aren’t sowing new crops, we do have plenty to harvest, and removing weeds will make for a better garden next year. There will inevitably be less to harvest in February and March, so don’t waste what we have growing before the Winter Solstice. Plan for the fall garden to mature by late November. Not much growing will happen after that.

Mulch over the rows to keep crops alive, or harvest and store before the coldest weather. Virginia snow is not the beneficial blanket that northern snows can be. Ours is wet, fleeting, heavy and unreliable. We need hoops and row covers to protect plants outdoors. Our winter gardens are susceptible to drying out the crops while the ground is frozen, and drowning them when it’s waterlogged.

After the month-by-month section is a multi-page chart of planting and harvesting. Three pages for zone 6 and three for zones 7 & 8. These are followed by an alphabetical crop section. Globe artichokes in Virginia – Ira has grown them as an annual, as other famous southern gardeners have done. Five blueberry bushes will feed four people – information like this is priceless, because you need to know before you plant and it will be a few years later that you discover the answer by yourself. Ira is part of Acorn Community, who run Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, a company selling open pollinated seed suited to the southeast. And she is broad-minded enough to recommend some quick-maturing broccoli hybrids “since timing is everything with spring plantings”, alongside OP varieties for fall. I appreciated the advice on garlic varieties, because I only know well the two varieties we grow, and people often ask me for recommendations. Nootka Rose for a long-storing softneck, Asian Tempest for early maturity, Music and Killarney Red for large cloves and easy peeling. The page on Muscadine (scuppernong) grapes is very useful to transplanted gardeners with no experience of them. Jerusalem artichokes are another crop you might not have considered. Easy, reliable, with you for life (self-propagating), they could be part of every self-reliant garden. Parsnips are another under-appreciated vegetable, “an old staple worth rediscovering”, very cold-tolerant and tasty. And there are crop-saving tips such as not to plant out peppers until the dogwood blossoms have fallen. In other words, don’t stunt them by planting out while we still have cold weather. A lesson I still need to learn.

This is a very accessible book, user-friendly, a great gift for yourself or other Virginia gardeners.

I have a few gripes with the publisher. Why get books printed in China rather than North America? Why not use recycled paper? I like the artistic background line drawings of plants (mostly a repeated artichoke head) lightly peppered throughout. The green spot-color drawings are OK to give a “quaint” feel to the book, but they often don’t match well with what Ira is saying. Ira is my neighbor and I know her favorite garden tools don’t look like these drawings!

Why not let authors provide more of the photos, so they are a better match for the text? I’ve given up trying to grow runner beans in summer in Virginia, because they don’t set pods when it is hot, (much as I love them – as a Brit, I was raised on them). There’s a photo of a (non-Virginian?) dog guarding a July harvest that I feel skeptical about. Early in the book, there is mention of runner beans as a challenging cool weather crop. The Plant and Harvest chart has them as planted in either Feb/Mar for Apr/May harvest, or July/early Aug planting for September and October harvest.

There’s a photo of kale and rainbow chard leaves, captioned as “rainbow kale.” If authors supplied the photos we wouldn’t get mix ups like this! Eye candy photos are attractive, yes, but I think people buying a gardening book will want clear accurate info above all else. I’m happy Ira got some photos of black and brown people gardening included. Most of the photos have no people, but other humans do help us relate to what we’re doing and why.

Cover Crops in Summer

 

Buckwheat seedlings. Buckwheat is our quickest easiest summer cover crop.
Photo Pam Dawling

Sow summer cover crops while it’s still too early sow your winter cover crops. Sow oats 5-8 weeks before your average first frost to get good size plants before they get winter-killed. Sow winter rye from 14 days before to 28 days after first fall frost. Oats, barley, wheat and rye sown too early can head up and seed before you get to winter, making them less useful. Instead, sow fast-growing summer cover crops in any space possible, for weed suppression and a boost to soil organic matter.

Keep live roots in the ground as much of the time as possible, to feed the microorganisms and anchor the soil, preventing erosion in heavy rains. Dead roots also have a role, providing drainage channels in the soil and letting air in deeper. Adding organic matter to the soil is a way of banking carbon, as well as providing nutrients for your crops.

Deep-rooted cover crops draw up nutrients, bringing them up where crop plants can access them. Leguminous cover crops provide nitrogen, saving imports of organic fertilizers or a big compost-making operation.

Iron and Clay southern peas flowering in September. Photo Pam Dawling

Advantages of Summer Cover Crops

Suppressing weeds. Weeds grow fast in summer, and fast-growing summer cover crops will suppress them. Sowing cover crops helps us stay on top of developing problems.

Growing biomass. Many summer cover crops can be mowed or scythed down (before flowering) to encourage regrowth. The cut biomass can be left in place, or raked out and used as mulch in another part of the garden. Some can even be used as feed or bedding for small livestock.

Feed the soil life. Cover crops are solar-power generators, transforming sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into leaves and roots. They also release carbohydrates and other nutrients that feed soil microbes, earthworms and other soil life forms that make soil fertile. This cycle of nutrients constantly passes through plants and back into the soil. When you aren’t growing vegetable crops, cover crops keep this cycle going.

Increasing biodiversity. Cover crops can attract beneficial insects, birds and amphibians to feed and reproduce. Biodiversity encourages ecological balance that can help reduce plant diseases and pest attacks.

No-Till summer cover crops. A mix of soybeans or southern peas and foxtail millet can be grown during the summer and mow-killed before planting in the fall. Garlic perhaps?

Overcoming the Challenges of Summer Cover Crops

Finding space. If you’ve been carefully filling every space with vegetables, you may think you have no room for cover crops, but because they feed the soil, it’s worth making space for them too. It’s part of the wholistic picture of sustainable food production. It’s worth making a priority to have one bed or one section of your garden in cover crops, because of what they can do for your soil.

  1. Have a goal of No Bare Soil. Seek out odd spaces to fill with cover crops.
  2. Use space beside rows of sprawly crops short-term. Undersow buckwheat in winter squash, watermelon or sweet potatoes, and mow or till as soon as the vines start to run.
  3. Take a cold hard look at aging crops: better than keeping an old row of beans to pick every last bean, is to pull up those beans and sow a quick cover crop. It will be a more valuable use of the space.
  4. Take a look at your planting plan. When is your next crop going in that space? Rather than till the soil to death to manage the weeds, use a cover crop. In the winter, see if you can re-arrange your crop rotation and planting plan to make more time windows of a month or more, with the plan of using more cover crops.
  5. Undersow growing crops with a cover crop when the vegetable crop has been in the ground for about a month. The food crop will be big enough to resist competition from the cover crop, and the cover crop will still get enough light to grow. This way fewer weeds grow, and your cover crop is already in place when the food crop is finished, giving it longer to reach a good size. We undersow our sweet corn with soybeans (soy and oats for the last sweet corn planting). Buckwheat can be under-sown in a spring vegetable crop, to take over after the food crop is finished. You can plant a short cover crop on the sides of a bed of any tall crop like tomatoes or pole beans. You will need to provide extra water, especially while the cover crop is germinating. Read my Mother Earth News post on undersowing in late summer and early fall.
  6. Sweet corn with undersown soy cover crop.
    Photo Kathryn Simmons

    You can also undersow winter cover crops during late summer and early fall to last over the winter and even the next year. We broadcast clover among our fall broccoli and cabbage with the plan of keeping it growing for the whole of the following year, mowing once a month to stop annual weeds seeding.

High temperatures. Most summer cover crop seeds will germinate just fine at high temperatures provided they get enough water.

Drought. If it doesn’t rain much in your summers, or your irrigation water is limited, choose cover crops that are drought-tolerant once germinated. After sowing, work the seed into the soil and roll or tamp the soil so that the seed is in good contact with the soil, which will help it get the water it needs rather than drying out in an air pocket. To get good germination, keep the soil surface visibly damp. You can use shadecloth, a light open straw or hay mulch, or even cardboard to reduce evaporation. Be sure to check every day and remove the cardboard as soon as you see the first seedlings.

Sowing small spaces. You can sow cover crops in rows by hand in very small spaces, or use an EarthWay seeder. Or you can broadcast: tuck a small bucket of seeds in one arm, take a handful of seeds and throw them up in front of yourself in a fanning movement, trying not to spread seed into neighboring beds where you don’t want them. Aim for about two seeds/sq in (1 sq inch is 6.5 sq cm, I’ll leave you to think what it looks like). Don’t sweat the details, you will get better with practice! This isn’t brain surgery! For more even coverage, try broadcasting half the seed walking up and down the length of the patch, then sow the other half while walking at 90 degrees to your original direction. Rake or till the seeds in, trying to cover most of the seeds with 0.5-1” (1-2.5 cm) of soil. Water with a hose wand or sprinkler to keep the soil damp until germination.

A bed ready for tilling after mowing the cover crop and spreading compost.
Photo Pam Dawling

Working with the time you have left.

  • If you have only 28 days until the patch is needed for a food crop, you can grow mustard or buckwheat. Or weeds, if you’re careful not to let them seed!
  • If you have at least 45 days, you can grow soy or Japanese millet.
  • If you have only 40-60 days before frost you can sow oats with soy beans or spring peas as a winter cover crop to winter-kill.
  • If you have 50–60 days until frost, or between crops, Browntop millet is possible. In the right climate, sunn hemp can mature in 60 days.
  • With 60–80 days until frost, or between one crop and the next, you could sow buckwheat, soy, southern peas, spring peas, German foxtail millet, pearl millet, Japanese millet, or sorghum-sudangrass to frost-kill. Or you could sow oats with Austrian winter peas, crimson clover, or red clover to grow into winter.
  • If you have longer than 80 days you can sow any of the warm weather cover crops now and then move on to winter cover crops 40 days before your frost. Or you could sow a fast-growing vegetable crop.

Five Easy Summer Cover Crops that Die with the Frost

Buckwheat

Buckwheat cover crop in flower.
Photo Pam Dawling

Buckwheat is the fastest and easiest cover crop, a 2’-3’ (60-90 cm) tall broadleaf annual that can be flowering within three weeks in very warm weather, 4 weeks in regular warm weather. Because it grows so fast, it quickly crowds out germinating weeds. Plant buckwheat after all spring frosts have passed, until 35 days before the fall frost at the latest.

If you have longer than 4 weeks for cover crops, you have the option of letting the buckwheat self-seed and regrow (only do this if you’ve finished growing vegetables for that year in that space). Another option if you are not close to the frost date is to incorporate the buckwheat in the soil and then sow fresh seed.

Buckwheat is very easy to incorporate into the soil. Use a mower or scythe to cut it down 7-10 days after it starts flowering, and then either let the dead plants die into a surface mulch and plant into that, or rake it up and compost it, or dig or till it into the soil. For small areas, you can simply pull up buckwheat by hand – this is what we do in our hoophouse.

Buckwheat can be used as a nurse crop for fall-planted, cold-tolerant crops, which can be difficult to germinate in hot weather. Sow a combination of buckwheat and a winter vegetable to shade and cool the soil. When frost kills the buckwheat, the vegetable crop can continue growing with no competition.

Buckwheat is not related to any of the common food crops, and so it is simple to include it in crop rotations.

See my post and article about buckwheat here.

Sorghum-Sudangrass

Sorghum-sudan cover crop after mowing to encourage regrowth.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

One of our favorite summer cover crops is sorghum-sudangrass, a hybrid that grow 5’-12’ (1.5-3.6 m) tall in 60-70 days and produces an impressive amount of biomass. You’ll need big machinery, at least a big BCS mower, to deal with sorghum-sudangrass. If you have only hand tools and a lawnmower, I recommend growing German foxtail or Japanese millet instead.

Plant sorghum-sudangrass about two weeks after your first sweet corn planting date and anytime onward until six weeks before frost. After it’s established, sorghum-sudangrass is highly drought-resistant and thrives in summer heat. Plant in rows 8” (20 cm) apart, with seeds 1’ (2.5 cm) deep, 1.5” (4 cm) apart. Sorghum-sudangrass will smother weed competition, and make big improvements to the soil texture and the levels of organic matter.

When the sorghum-sudangrass reaches 4’ (1.2 m) tall, cut it down to 1’ (30 cm) to encourage regrowth and more, deeper, roots growth that will loosen compacted soil. The cut tops make a good mulch, or you can leave them in place.

Sorghum-sudangrass roots exude allelopathic compounds that suppress damaging nematodes and inhibit small seeds (weeds and crops) from germinating and inhibits the growth of tomatoes, lettuce, and broccoli. Wait at least 6 weeks after killing sorghum-sudangrass before planting another crop in the same spot. Plant earlier at your own risk – I think we’ve had some success despite the warnings. Be careful if feeding to livestock. Read up about prussic acid poisoning from this cover crop.

Soybeans

Soybeans as a cover crop
Photo agcrops.osu.edu

These are a quick easy leguminous cover crop for warm weather. Buy organic seed if you don’t want GMOs, as almost all non-Organic soybeans in the US are GMOs. We plant these whenever we have a minimum of six weeks for them to grow before frost or before we’ll need to turn them under. They aren’t the highest N-producing legume, but they are very fast-growing and easy to manage.

Southern Peas

Iron and Clay southern peas as cover crop in the hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

Also known as cowpeas, although I have heard this might be perceived as insulting by African-American families who use them as food. Southern peas grow fast (60-90 days), thrive in heat, and are very drought-tolerant. Their taproots can reach almost 8’ (2.4 m) deep. They grow well in almost any soil, except highly alkaline ones. Southern peas attract beneficial insects.

Sow southern peas 1-2 weeks after your sweet corn, when the soil has warmed up. You can continue sowing until 9 weeks before a killing fall frost. Sow seeds 2” (5 cm) apart, 1” (2.5 cm) deep in rows 6” (15 cm) apart (give vining types more like 15” (40 cm) between rows. Close planting is needed to shade out weeds.

Because they are fast-growing, southern peas can follow spring vegetable crops and fix nitrogen in time to feed heavy-feeding, fall-planted onions or garlic.

Sunn Hemp

Sunnhemp cover crop at Nourishing Acres Farm, NC.
Photo Pam Dawling

Sunn hemp is a nitrogen-fixing legume from the tropics, which can grow as much as 9’ (2 m) tall in just weeks. Sow sunn hemp from 1-2 weeks after your sweet corn sowing date, up to 9 weeks before a killing frost. It tolerates a wide range of soils (but not if waterlogged), and dies with the frost. Plant inoculated seed (use the same inoculant as for southern peas) 1” (2.5 cm) deep, with seeds 1.5” (4 cm) apart in the row, and with rows 6” (15 cm) apart. Sowing densely will smother the weeds.

If you sow in a summer gap between spring and fall vegetable crops, it will provide a nitrogen boost for the fall crop. In dense plantings, it can fix more than 120 lbs (54 kg) of nitrogen and 12 pounds of biomass per 100 sq ft (0.56 kg/sq m). 60 days after sowing, the stems thicken and become fibrous and high in cellulose; cutting at this stage produces long-lasting mulches that increase soil carbon. If you cut the crop back at a younger stage, this will stimulate branching (more biomass) and more root penetration (better drainage).

Late Summer Cover Crops for Winter: Oats and Barley

Occasionally our winter cover crop oats don’t get winter-killed. March photo by Pam Dawling

In late summer you can sow oats for a winter cover crop that will be killed at 6°F (-14°C). We sow in late August and early September in Zone 7. Inexpensive and easy to grow, oats are a standard fall cover crop: a quick-growing, non-spreading grass, oats will reliably die in Hardiness Zone 6 and colder, and nine years out of ten in zone 7.

Barley grows even faster than oats, and on average it will get killed later in the winter. It usually dies at 17°F (-8°C), making barley another choice for gardeners in regions where oats are used.

Cover Crop Resources

My book Sustainable Market Farming has a chapter on cover crops and 9 pages of charts about particular options.

The book Managing Cover Crops Profitably (third edition) from the Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education Program (SARE), is the best book I know on the subject. You buy the book for $19 or download it as a free PDF from SARE.