Cover Crops for April: before the last frost.

 

Beds of young buckwheat.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

In January I shared some resources to give the Big Picture of Cover Crops, including a compilation of slides for SARE (Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education) and my slideshow Cover Crops for Vegetable Growers.

In February, I described limiting winter annual weeds by sowing oats in spaces without a cover crop and no planned food crop for 6-10 weeks. Six–ten weeks (depending on your climate) is long enough in early spring to get worthwhile growth from oats before prepping for the food crop. Also see February’s post for the Stale Seedbed and Tarping Techniques.

In March I wrote about some options for cover crops you might be sowing then, and alternatives like a fast-growing hardy leafy vegetable or mixed Eat-All Greens, an idea from Carol Deppe, a great idea if you have more than eight weeks before your main vegetable crop goes in the ground. This is where using transplants really helps increase your total food output. While the frost-tender transplants are growing indoors, you could be growing a “catch crop” outdoors in spaces that didn’t get a winter cover crop. I also talked in the March post about incorporating cover crops. Remember that if you incorporate fresh green cover crops into the soil, you will need to wait two or three weeks to sow, to give the cover crop time to break down in the soil before it can be available for your crop. Especially, wait three weeks after turning under winter rye before sowing, as it produces allelopathic compounds that can inhibit the germination and growth of small seeds. Transplants don’t suffer the same problem.

Potatoes, weeds and standing water. Until the soil drains, the potatoes cannot be hilled, and the weeds here are already large. The yield will be reduced by weeds out-competing the potatoes. Potatoes may be flamed at 6″–12″ (15–30 cm) tall, to kill weeds without damaging the potato plants. After that, flaming is not recommended.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Once we get to April here, it is too late to successfully grow oats (they will quickly head up after making very little growth). But in climates like ours, we can sow winter wheat or winter rye in April – they will not head up, but will “wimp out” when it gets hot. That is, they will stop growing, so you won’t get a lot of biomass, but you will have some live roots in the soil, holding it together, taking care of the soil microfauna, and discouraging weeds form germinating. One April when our spring-planted potatoes got flooded, we transplanted potato plants to the drier end of the patch and sowed winter rye in the lower end, once the floods had subsided. This kept the soil covered, scavenged the compost we had spread for the potatoes, and was easy to deal with in July when we harvested the potatoes. It was also much more hopeful to look at an area of green cover crop than an area of green weeds!

April is too soon for us to rely on frost-tender cover crops, but by mid-April, we can sow a mix of oats and buckwheat. The oats will protect the buckwheat somewhat from the cold. if the season is warmer than average, the buckwheat will survive and smother weeds, provide pollen and nectar for beneficial insects

Here’s a lovely quote from Barbara Pleasant in SW Virginia:

“It’s April and the soil is warming up and drying out. After loosening a clump of fall-sown wheat with a digging fork, you pull up a marvelous mop of fibrous roots and shake out the soil. What crumb! The soil’s structure is nothing short of amazing! These are the moments an organic gardener lives for.”

Root systems of four grass cover crops at early stages of growth (two months in a greenhouse). From left: annual ryegrass, barley, triticale (winter biennials) and sorghum-sudangrass (summer annual). Photos by Joseph Amsili. From SARE

Depending on the stage of the year where you are, you could revisit any of the earlier posts. Here are links for each of the cover crop posts in the past year.

May: Buckwheat and Other Summer Cover Crops

June: Sunn Hemp, Soybeans, Southern Peas, and Partridge Pea, Senna Ligustrina

July: Millets and Sorghum-Sudangrass (Sudex)

August: Oats, Barley and Other Winter-Killed Cover Crops

September: Winter Wheat and Crimson Clover

October: Winter Wheat and Austrian Winter Peas

November: Winter Rye (with Austrian Winter Peas early in November)

December: Planning Winter Cover Crops

January: The Big Picture, Ponder and Plan Your Cover Crop Strategies for the Coming Year

February: Oats if you have a 6–10 Week Gap

March: Sowing Options and Incorporating Cover Crops

Perennial and Native Cover Crops

I attended a workshop at the VABF-SFOP Summit on cover crops led by Cerruti R2 Hooks, Veronica Yurchak, from the Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, and Hanna Kahl of UC Davis. The UMD Eastern Shore IPM Center has lots of useful programs and publications. They focus on the most important pest problems and make science-based information available to everyone who contends with pests. This workshop discussed how cover crops influence weeds, plant diseases and insects. Cover crops can smother weeds, augment weed seed predators (lifeforms that eat weed seeds), create a weed-suppressive soil microbe community, release allelochemicals that are toxic to weed seeds, release nitrogen into the crop germination zone, boosting crop growth, cool the soil and compete with weeds for resources.

Cover crops can decrease crop diseases by increasing the diversity of soil organisms, making soil more disease-suppressive; releasing compounds unfavorable to disease organisms; trigger plant immune responses; increase the number of beneficial organisms and forma physical barrier that reduces splash-back from the oil. A nice example is that sunn hemp interplanted in squash rows can cause aphids carrying virus particles in their mouth parts to drop them in the sunn hemp where they do no harm.

Sunn hemp at Nourishing Acres Farm.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cover crops can repel some insects and nematodes, as well as providing habitat, nutrients and protection from predators for the beneficial insects. This can help augment the population of beneficial insects. Cover crops can also act as trap crops for problem insects by being more attractive to them than the crop plants. Cover crops can also cause microclimate change within the crop, for example by acting as a windbreak.

The speaker gave examples with red clover, a short-lived perennial, sown in the previous fall between cucumber rows that were planted in spring. The population of striped cucumber beetles was lower, while populations of beneficials such as big-eyed bugs, minute pirate bugs and ladybugs were increased.

In November 2023, at the Carolina Farm Stewardship Conference, I went to an engaging workshop called On-Farm Cover Crops Research in the Carolinas by Justin Duncan from NCAT/ATTRA, Jason Lindsay from the Southeastern African American Farmers’ Organic Network, and Steve McAllan. See his YouTube  Cover Crops for Hot & Humid Regions. At the workshop, Justin Duncan explained Push-Pull Trap Cropping, invented in Kenya, combining a companion plant that repels a pest with a trap crop nearby that attracts it, making pest control easier.

Pigeon Pea as cover crop. Photo https://conservationist.wordpress.com/2008/11/03/pigeon-pea-as-cover-crop/

He advocated for pigeon peas (Cajanus Cajan) as a cover crop for warm droughty climates, that will also keep the soil cooler. When mean temperatures rise 1 Celsius degree, soils in warm areas burn up 10% of their OM, and cool areas lose 3%. Loss of water leads to loss of OM, leading to more water loss. Hot humid areas need twice as much OM as cooler ones to maintain fertility. No-till can cut the loss of OM by half compared to conventional tillage. Other cover crops Justin Duncan recommended include Perennial Peanut, good in orchards, Chamaecrista rotundifolia (round-leaved cassia) and Scarlet Runner beans. Cover crops are a way of growing Organic Matter in place.

Patrick Johnson, RVA Permaculture. Photo https://rvapermaculture.com/about-us/

Patrick Johnson, a Virginia permaculturist, also gave a presentation on native cover crops. See his Proposal and Project Overview:  https://projects.sare.org/sare_project/fs22-345/

And read the Feb 2024 SARE report Using a Native Legume as a Cover Crop for Soil and Vegetable Production Benefits in Small Scale Vegetable Production.

No-Till Cover Crops

I have not covered these yet, and don’t have much personal experience, apart from our one-year-in-ten growing of paste tomatoes in a mow-killed rye, hairy vetch and Austrian winter peas dying mulch. I’ll make a separate post for next week about combining cover crops and no-till methods.

Cover Crop Training Videos from SARE

See SARE for a series of ten training videos.

Weeds Next

For my next annual series of blogposts, starting at the beginning of May, I will cover Weeds of the Month.

2023-2024 Conference Tips 3 – Climate Change, less usual edible plants

Carrots under shade cloth in summer.
Photo Pam Dawling

2023-2024 Conference Tips Part 3 – Climate Change, Less Usual Edible Plants

I reported earlier on good tips I got from the CFSA Conference and the VABF-SFOP Summit.  Here I’ll continue the theme.

At the VABF-SFOP Summit, I also attended workshops on Meeting the Climate Challenge with Mark Schonbeck, and Eating and Marketing the Whole Plant with Chris Smith. I’ll tell you more about those now, then move on to the Pasa Sustainable Agriculture Conference.

Meeting the Climate Challenge: Sharing Stories, Co-Creating Solutions with Mark Schonbeck

Mark’s slides and handout will be available soon on the VABF website. In our region we are experiencing hotter summer nights, which are hard on plants (and livestock, I’m sure). At 95F (35C) most crops close down completely or slow their growth. For every 1.8F (1C) in warming, 3-10% of the Organic Matter is lost (burned up) and nitrous oxide emissions may increase 18-28%. Daffodils are flowering up to 5 weeks earlier, fruit trees are budding out earlier, risking losing the fruit to freezing nights. In the spring we are getting later cold snaps below 10F (-12C) in March.

We are having a longer frost-free period, with more generations of bugs. Downy mildew of cucurbits is spreading further north than previously.

Our kale beds after heavy rain. Photo Wren Vile

In Virginia we are getting more intense and heavier rains, with more flooding. The erratic nature of the rains means we can experience flash floods, followed by droughts and wildfires. Heavy rainfall leads plants to grow shallower roots, which then die if a sudden drought follows.

Keeping living roots in the soil will increase climate resilience, as will other ways of building healthy soils, such as diversified rotations, and varied agricultural enterprises. Here’s Mark’s list of

6 Organic Principles of Soil Health:

  1. Keep the soil covered
  2. Maintain living roots
  3. Return organic residues to the soil
  4. Minimize soil disturbance
  5. Diversify crops
  6. Integrate livestock.
Teff cover crop.
Photo Wikipedia

Increasing the use of cover crops will help with 1, 2, 3 and 5. Teff can be considered as a summer cover crop in alleys between plastic mulched beds. Mixing with clover gives better soil coverage. I have not yet tried this myself. Oats/barley/peas/mustard sown in March will grow big by June, adding lots of biomass. Oats/radish/legume cover crop mix will winter-kill. Silage tarps and landscape fabrics can help hold the soil in place.

Installing terraces, berms and swales will help with water management. Installing drip irrigation will help manage droughts. Protected growing, in hoophouses or caterpillar tunnels, will help protect from many kinds of extreme weather. There are steps we can take to mitigate climate change, and more information is becoming available.

Eating and Marketing the Whole Plant with Chris Smith

Chris is the author of The Whole Okra, and part of his presentation was about the many uses of okra, beyond cooking the pods. Okra leaf chips are the latest thing he has tried. The leaves are used for soup in Nigeria. The flowers can be eaten or dried for tea. The oil from okra seeds is nutty, citrusy, a bit like olive oil, although the yield is small, at 9-20%. The oil presscake can be ground for defatted flour.

Book Edible Leaves of the Tropics by Franklin Martin, Ruth Ruberte and Laura S Meitzner

Chris showed us a remarkable book Edible Leaves of the Tropics, by Franklin Martin, Ruth Ruberte and Laura S Meitzner. Plants for a Future  has a database of 8000 plants, including edible plants.  The Book of Greens by Jenn Louis and Legume Species as Leafy Vegetables by Robert P Barrett (online) are also valuable resources on edible plants.

DIYseeds.org educational films on seed production

Go to https://www.diyseeds.org  then search for info on growing seeds.

Male squash flowers can sell at $1/flower for an 8-week season. Winter squash yields can increase if some of the early male flowers are removed! Wisteria, redbud and black locust flowers are edible. Kudzu offers many food options (eat it up!) Roots of dandelion, burdock, thistle, sassafras, daylily, dahlia, runner bean and chayote are all edible.

Soil Health, Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Planning, Rachel Schattman, Sara Keleman and Nic Cook

In February 2024, I participated in the Pasa Sustainable Agriculture Conference.  The first session I attended there was Soil Health, Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Planning, with speakers from the University of Maine Climate Science department. They reported that the NE has seen a 15% increase in Growing Degree Days since 1948, and the frost-free growing season in Maine has increased by 14 days since 1895. California has seen a 40-50 day increase in that period. In Maine the temperature changes are greater in winter than in summer. Since 2012, half of the US has shifted to the next warmer winter-hardiness zone. It is helpful to watch indicator species to determine when to plant particular crops. (See my post on Phenology). Warmer temperatures mean that the air holds more water (7% more for each C degree). This means slower storms, more storms heavier rainfall. They also experience droughts, and distinguish between agricultural drought, meteorological drought, and hydrologic drought – be sure which kind your conversations are about.

Young blueberry plant in snow. Photo Bridget Aleshire

Sea level rise is dramatic on the East coast because of past glaciation. The other main impacts they are seeing on agriculture include False Spring (fruit bud kill after a “warm snap”), winter soil erosion and rain ponding, and new pests, diseases and invasive species, warm season heat stress including crop quality deterioration, greater irrigation demands and needs for shade and ventilation (drought can decrease yields 30%), storm intensity including hail and high winds, longer power outages, soil compaction and nutrient runoff, increased rainfall leading to delayed planting and crop losses. These are all possibilities to prepare for. The silver lining is that there may be new crops we can grow, or longer seasons of familiar crops. NRCS, Extension and other resources are available. Climate-Smart Farming and Marketing is a program for farmers from Maine to South Carolina, offering financial support and technical help to farmers implementing climate-smart practices such as cover cropping, agroforestry, reduced tillage and prescribed grazing.

Prescribed grazing is the intentional use of ruminant animals (hoofed herbivores such as cows, sheep, and goats) on the landscape. Unlike conventional grazing, prescribed grazing utilizes a grazing plan that dictates the location and duration of graze periods. This plan is informed by the ecology of the grazing area.” (Community Environmental Council).

Garlic beds next to rowcovered broccoli beds, under a stormy sky.
Photo Wren Vile

We were helped through an 8-stage planning process:

  1. Risk Assessment (prioritizing which aspect of climate change to deal with first). Heavier rains, then high temperatures, wildfire and smoke, plant diseases.
  2. Vulnerability (looking at your system, climate, location, and seasonal time period). Consider both Exposure to the risk and your farm’s Adaptive Capacity.
  3. Option ID. Consider all of small, medium large and total transformation of your farming. Divide your options up into 4 quadrants on axes of cheap-expensive, difficult-easy; low Greenhouse Gas-high GHG, reducing risk-increasing risk; low impact-high impact, quick to install-takes a long time.
  4. Evaluate tradeoffs (financial, ecological, social). Rank your options and select one that meets as many of your priorities as possible.
  5. Try to meet several goals with one solution. Consider seeking advice or funding.
  6. Monitoring and assessment. How will you measure the improvements?
  7. Revising/tweaking. Reflect and assess. Consider success at each stage.
  8. Share what you learned. Don’t expect perfection, or that others will expect that from you.

Next followed a section on funding. Currently there is lots in Inflation Reduction Act coffers for efficiency increases, renewable energy, conservation practices. Try REAP (Rural Energy for America Program), USDA, NRCS, Rural Development Office for your state, SARE funding for experimentation and trials, state agriculture departments, advocacy organizations, regional non-profits, Chesapeake Bay Trust, Farmer Resource Network, county grants, Beginner Farmer grants, grants for historically under-served farmers, Ambrook Accounting software for American farms..

Take a buddy with you to the offices!

Farmer Resource Network

Vegetable Growing Tips, Winter 2023-2024. Part 2 VABF-SFOP Summit

VABF/SFOP Summit conference January 2024

 At the VABF-SFOP Summit in January, I attended the half-day intensive by Jean-Martin Fortier, Market Gardening 2.0. He covered a brief description of what market gardening is, five different crops that are most profitable, and three management tools for profitable farming. He briefly covered his career from 2004 establishing the 1.5 acre vegetable farm La Grelinette with his wife Maud-Hélène Desroches; his 2015 move to run a training farm school, La Ferme des Quatre-Temps,  with 10 2-year trainees per year; his 2023 move to set up a farm-to-table restaurant, Espace Old Mill, very close to home.

Jean-Martin Fortier with his broadfork.

J-M’s five crops for optimal profitability are summer squash, greenhouse tomatoes, garlic, carrots, small eggplants.

For squash, J-M recommends Romanesco, Safari, Gold Mine and Zephyr, harvesting each of their two plantings (in Quebec) for 10-12 weeks. They plant on landscape fabric with melted holes. The squash are netted until flowering. His workshop included all the details. See J-M’s video about using insect netting: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWI30jSQa40. He recommends three types of net: 25 gm net, 47 gm net, and the newer heavy-duty woven net, all from ProtekNet. DuboisAg.com.

Marbonne tomato.
Photo credit Johnny’s Selected Seeds

For greenhouse tomatoes, which are 10% of their sales, they grow Marbonne, Margold, Aurea, Big Dena, Marnero and Beorange, all grafted at 4 weeks of age onto Maxifort or Trust rootstock. This is a highly technical crop, grown with some heating, harvested from early June to October. The spacing is intensive, one row per 30” (75 cm) bed, plants every 13” (33 cm), with the centers pinched out to produce double-header plants. The tomato vines are trained to wires, and the lower-and-lean system is used.

The famous Music garlic.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

For garlic, they grow Music hardneck and Siberian softneck, saving their own seed to avoid buying seed lots infested with disease or pests. They plant 2” (5 cm) deep using a dibbler, 3 rows per 30” (75 cm) bed, with plants 5” (14 cm) apart. They combat the leek moths with Tricho-Gard cards containing pupae of the parasitoid Trichogramma wasp. Their garlic sells at $3-$5 per bulb.

Napoli carrots. Credit Johnny’s Selected Seeds

For carrots, they grow Adelaide for earlies, Napoli for fall and winter. They found the tops of Mokum too weak. They rowcover the bed for a week before sowing, to pre-germinate weeds. After removing the rowcover and flaming, they sow the carrots with a Jang seeder. They sow some beets as an indicator, flaming the bed as soon as the beets emerge. For cultivating between the rows of carrots, they use Biodisks on a Terrateck wheelhoe. The bio-disc tool consists of two parabolic discs and two straight discs. It provides precision weeding and hilling on rows on light soils. To harvest, one person loosens the carrots with a broadfork, two people pull bunches.

Fairy Tale Eggplant. Photo johnny’s Selected Seeds

For baby eggplants, they grow small fast-maturing varieties such as Fairy Tale, Orient Express, Orient Charm, Hansel and Nadia, on landscape fabric in an unheated caterpillar tunnel, 1 row per 30” bed, 18” in-row spacing. They transplant at 7-8 weeks, large plants just starting to flower.

Terrateck Biodiscs.
Photo Taerrateck

As well as the Jang seeder and Terrateck bio-disks, they recommend tarping, mini-tunnels, the flextine weeder, and a bubbler (Jacuzzi pump) in the wash tank.

J-M’s management tips include a Monday Morning Game Plan, touring the farm and listing the tasks; making a map and task calendar for every week; sharing the week’s task list with the crew on Monday afternoons, and finishing the day with a preview of the next day’s action list, which helps the crew be ready for an efficient start the next morning. Cap the number of hours of work expected each day. Cap the number of each plant you set out – don’t plant more hoping for the best – this adds costs! Every week, at a consistent time, hold a compulsory Roses, Thorns and Buds session for up to one hour, where each person takes a few uninterrupted minutes to describe their Rose highlight that week (something that made them excited, proud and happy); then the Thorns (something that left them sad, frustrated, angry and why) and finishing with the Buds (something they are looking forward to in the coming week). If a big issue comes up, you could go back to it after the round is completed.

I also attended a workshop on perennial cover crops, that I’ll go into details of in a future cover crops post. It was led by Cerruti R2 Hooks, Veronica Yurchak, from the Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, and Hanna Kahl of UC Davis.

University of Maryland Eastern Shore IPM Center has more information on IPM.

I also attended a workshop on Securing Organic Vegetable Production in Virginia Through Increased Disease Management, by Steve Rideout of Virginia Tech. His recent work has been on Septoria on cilantro and parsley, bacterial spot, bacterial speck and early blight on tomato, anthracnose on peppers, powdery mildew and downy mildew on squash.

Steve described the Disease Management Pyramid, with a base layer of the cropping system chosen. Once this is optimized cultural practices and disease-resistant varieties can be used to further reduce the chance of a disease. Chemical control is a last resort, if all else fails. Heat seed treatments can be used to prevent bacterial spot and bacterial speck. Rutgers has step-by-step instructions for avoiding bacterial canker of tomato including sanitation measures.  To reduce tomato diseases that are soil-borne, support the plants up off the ground, use mulch to prevent splash-back, remove the lower leaves of the plants, and use drip irrigation if possible.

Pepper anthracnose. Photo Bayer.

Pepper anthracnose is hard to control by any means, and some resistant varieties are low-yielding. A 2 or 3-year rotation, using certified seed, reducing humidity in the plant canopy (increasing airflow), removing infected fruit, and using mulch and drip can help.

Cucurbit powdery mildew and downy mildew are very different from each other. Downy mildew strikes cucumbers worst of all the cucurbits. There are two strains. Time your planting to avoid DM, by planting in spring in full sun. There is a Cucurbit DM Forecast Site, which shows the annual spread by county. (Nothing to see in February!). The main symptoms are leaf spots that are yellow turning brown on the upper surface and fuzzy on the underside. Steve recommended DMR401, DMR264, SV4179S, Bricky Brickyard?), Bristol and Common Wealth Seeds South Wind as varieties with best resistance.

Cucumber leaves with downy mildew.
Photo Research Gate.

Cucurbit PM does not trouble cucumbers as much as other cucurbits. It forms a sparse white dusty-looking coating, and does best on dry days with dewy nights of 6 hours or more. Better results are found with a homozygous rather than heterozygous resistant variety. Spraying with water can help, but don’t spray cucurbits with anything if the sir temperature is more than 90F. Sulfur, copper, M-Pede, Serenade and Regalia can help. M-Pede may also reduce pests including deer!

Virginia’s biggest pumpkin disease is Plectosporium blight, which can also affect cucumbers and squash, starting as tiny leaf spots, then scarring the leaf veins on the underside, and the stems. Look for resistant cultivars.

Broccoli head with Alternaria fungus. Photo UCANR

Stepping away from cucurbits and considering brassicas, especially broccoli, next. Alternaria lesions of concentric rings can be hidden in the broccoli crown. Bacterial Rot lesions are seen on the leaf margins, moving in as blocks of affected tissue. It smells bad. Some most-resistant varieties include Emerald Jewel, Green Magic, Marathon, Avenger, Vallejo. Also good are Gypsy, Belstar, Eastern Magic, Burney in hot weather. Expo, Montflor were also recommended. Fungicides are not very effective, but OSO (polyoxin zinc) is the best if you have to.

The Plant Diseases Clinic charges $25 per sample sent to them (this may vary from state to state). See the 2019 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations and the 2020 Southeastern Commercial Vegetable Crop Handbook and choose your Organic solutions from those resources.

This post is long enough! I also attended workshops on Meeting the Climate Challenge with Mark Schonbeck, and Eating and Marketing the Whole Plant with Chris Smith. I hop to tell you more about those soon!

Rick and Janice Felker of Mattawoman Creek Farms on the Eastern Shore, VA extended an offer to provide a limited amount pf free assistance to farmers interested in learning more about their crop production and organic certification experiences. Contact Rick and Janice to find out if they still have spare time!

Vegetable Growing Tips from Conferences, Winter 2023-2024. Part 1 CFSA

 

A Spacemaster cucumber plant in our hoophouse on April 23.
Photo Pam Dawling

I love learning new things and getting tips for improving our vegetable production. My events page tells you about recent and upcoming conferences. After I get home from conferences, I usually need to dive back into work, and am in danger of ignoring things I learned. Hence this blogpost. I’ll pass tips on, and extract the gems from my hand-written notes, making it more likely I’ll do something useful with them!

CFSA SAC 2023 banner

In November 2023 I took part in the Carolina Farm Stewardship Conference. I went to an engaging workshop called On-Farm Cover Crops Research in the Carolinas by Justin Duncan from NCAT/ATTRA, Jason Lindsay from the Southeastern African American Farmers’ Organic Network, and Steve McAllan, a last-minute substitute. I’ve got a blogpost brewing about native cover crops in vegetable production, so I’ll save the content for that post. Patrick Johnson also gave a presentation on native cover crops, which I’ll include more about in the promised post.

https://www.youtube.com/c/clem’sorganicgardens

I also participated in a workshop on Advanced Organic Weed Management for Vegetable Growers, given by Clem Swift of Clem’s Organic Gardens, from Pisgah Forest, NC, where they have 8 acres in field production of vegetables. I hadn’t realized the workshop was mostly machinery-focused, but I learned actionable tips anyway! I watched his video on potato planting, cultivation and harvest, which is similar to the way we grow potatoes. I learned a way of covering the edges of plastic mulch by walking backwards with one foot on the plastic to tension it, hoeing soil up onto the plastic. That sounds easier than our method using shovels, but sounds like it does require looser soil than we sometimes have where we use plastic. Clem has a well-organized system of first removing perennial weeds, then cultivating early and often to deal with annual weeds, including using a double-wheeled wheelhoe with a scuffle on either side of the row. Perhaps like one of these:

Double-wheeled double-scuffle wheelhoe. Hoss Tools
Double-wheel double-sweeps wheelhoe. Sweeps available as a conversion kit from Earth Tools.

Johnny’s Selected Seeds has a Wheelhoe Selection Guide in their Tool Library

Next I attended Precise Nutrient Management for Small-Scale Farms by Kyle Montgomery of Advancing Eco Agriculture. Kyle’s goal was to help us answer the question: How could marketable yields be significantly increased with minor changes to a fertility program? Plants have different nutrient requirements at different stages of growth. Sap analysis can show what the plant is taking out of the soil. In each 24 hour period, we want all soluble nitrogen to be converted to stable forms. This was something new for me to think about. I didn’t bring away anything specific to work on.

South Wind slicing cucumber.
Photo Common Wealth Seed Growers

High Tunnel Cucumber Production by Joe Rowland, CFSA’s Organic Initiatives Coordinator, covered preliminary findings from year one of CFSA’s SARE-funded organic high tunnel cucumber project. They trialed 6 varieties of cucumbers grown on 2 different trellis types (drop lines vs Hortanova netting) to compare disease occurrence and severity and marketable yield. Three participating farms replicated the trial to see what works best throughout the region.

Excelsior pickling cucumber. Photo Johnny’s Seeds

Their standout varieties were Itachi, an Asian white slicer (low yield but good disease resistance), and Excelsior pickler (highest yield).

Itachi white Asian slicing cucumber. Johnny’s Seeds

Poniente (a parthenocarpic European slicer) had the most disease of the 6 in the trial; Shintokiwa had the least disease, but was a slow producer, with low yields. The dropline system uses a single leader, more clips, more pruning and twirling than the Hortanova, where two “rows” could be made per bed, training two leaders from each plant in a V. This gave good airflow, slowed down the height-increase compared to single leader plants, and enabled herbs to be intercropped. We grow a succession of five or six plantings of cucumber, mostly outdoors, sprawled on the ground. Only for the early crop does it seem worthwhile to us to grow them in the hoophouse. But I’ve no idea how our yield compares with trained high    tunnel cukes, and perhaps measuring it would lead me to a different plan!

 Poniente cucumber. Territorial Seeds. Note trellis.
Shintokiwa cucumber High Mowing Seeds

VABF and Pasa Conferences 2024

I’m busy getting ready for presenting three workshops in Roanoke at VABF, and two in Lancaster, PA at Pasa. I hope to meet some of you there.

January 2024 Event

Virginia Association for Biological Farming

and VSU Small Farm Outreach Program

January 19-21 2024

VABF/SFOP Summit conference January 2024
VABF-SFOP Summit

REGISTER HERE!  (at the bottom of their page)

The inaugural Virginia Association for Biological Farming-Small Farm Outreach Program Summit 2024 brings together farmers, gardeners, eaters, educators, industry professionals, and advocates of sustainable, biological, regenerative, and organic agriculture!

The three day Conference includes:  Full and Half Day Pre-Conference intensive workshops, 60+ sessions and workshops, presentations and panel discussions, 40+ tradeshow exhibitors, locally sourced farm meals and book signings. The Conference features a Youth & Teen Program, a Silent Auction and networking opportunities including regional networking meetings, and the Taste of Virginia Expo & Social! 

Learn more: VABF-SFOP Summit pre-conference sessions

Keynote Speakers

Jean-Martin Fortier

Jean-Martin (JM) Fortier is an organic farmer, author, educator and internationally recognized advocate for regenerative, human-scale and profitable agriculture. JM Fortier founded the Market Garden Institute. He is the author of The Market Gardener, and co-author with Catherine Sylvestre  of the Winter Market Gardener. His presentation is Friday 1-5 pm.

We regret to inform you that Niaz Dorry has had to cancel her keynote speech due to understandable personal reasons. Fortunately, she has kindly connected us to another exciting speaker, Ray Jeffers.

Ray Jeffers

Ray is a native of  Person County, NC, where he also operates the family’s century farm purchased by his great-grandfather in 1919. Previously Ray served for 12 years as an elected Person County Commissioner (2008-2020), and was most recently elected in 2022 to the North Carolina House of Representatives where he serves on the Agriculture committee.  Ray continues to serve on several local and state boards promoting agriculture and rural communities. Ray attended Piedmont Community College and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University.

B. Ray Jeffers joined the RAFI-USA team in June 2021 and near the end of 2022 became Director of the Farmers of Color Network. Ray is no stranger to the job as he currently grows seasonal vegetables for wholesale and direct sale at his B.R. Jeffers Farms in Roxboro, NC, as well as raises heritage breed hogs for direct sale at markets and restaurants.

We’re excited and grateful to have Ray join us for Part 1 keynote address during Saturday evening and a Part 2 keynote address during Sunday lunch.

Pre-Conference Workshops

7 Full and Half-Day Pre-Conference workshops and a farm tour are available on Friday, January 19. In 2024, thanks to grant funding from USDA-NOP-TOPP and a sponsorship by Sand County Foundation, all workshops and the farm tour are being offered free of charge to VABF-SFOP Summit attendees. Workshops may be added on free of charge to your Summit Registration. Spaces are limited.

The Full Day Workshop, Holistic Farming Methods: How Organic, Biodynamic, Permaculture, & Beyond Integrate for a Sustainable Future, includes the Hotel Lunch Buffet free of charge. The Lick Run Farm Tour includes a bagged lunch on the farm. All other pre-conference workshops have the option of purchasing the Hotel Lunch Buffet for $35.

on Friday 1/19, 9 am to noon,I am presenting a half -day workshop: Year-Round hoophouse Vegetables

Hoophouse with winter crops

Fill your hoophouses (high tunnels, polytunnels) all year round with productive crops. In this course you’ll learn how to decide which crops to grow—with an emphasis on vegetables—how much to plant and how much to harvest by making maps, schedules and crop rotation plans. We’ll discuss which market crops are best at various times of year—cold-hardy, early warm-weather and high summer crops—and consider less common crops, such as seed crops and flowers, and cover crops for soil improvement. Learn how to maximize the use of space by clever seasonal transitions, succession planting and follow-on cropping. The course will also provide strategies for managing challenges such as extreme temperatures, nitrate accumulation in leafy greens, soil-borne diseases, pests and nematodes, salt buildup, and maintaining soil organic matter.

Session Schedule

Explore the conference schedule and see when different sessions will be held.

On Saturday 1/20, 4-5.30 pm, I am presenting Storage Vegetables for off-season sales, in the Buck Mountain Room.

Our winter squash storage cage. Photo Twin Oaks Community

Grow crops you can sell during the winter, while allowing yourself some down-time and reprieve from outdoor work. Choose suitable crops, schedules and storage conditions. Understand your weather and basic crop protection. This workshop will provide tables of cold-hardiness and details of four ranges of cold-hardy crops (warm and cool weather crops to harvest and store before very cold weather; crops to keep alive in the ground further into winter, then store; hardy crops to store in the ground and harvest during the winter, and overwinter crops for early spring harvests before the main season). It includes tables of storage conditions needed for different vegetables and suggestions of suitable storage methods, with and without electricity.

On Sunday 1/21, 8.30-10 am, I am presenting Lettuce Year-Round, in the Mill Mountain Room.

Buckley One-cut (Eazileaf) lettuce.
Photo High Mowing Seeds

This presentation includes techniques to extend the lettuce season using rowcover, coldframes and hoophouses to provide lettuce harvests in every month of the year. The workshop will include a look at varieties for spring, summer, fall and winter. We will consider the pros and cons of head lettuce, leaf lettuce, baby lettuce mix and the newer multileaf types. Information will also be provided on scheduling and growing conditions, including how to persuade lettuce to germinate when it’s too hot​​, and the Asian greens used as lettuce in tropical climates.

Taste of Virginia Expo and Market & Social

Included in the Conference Registration and free and open to the public is the Taste of Virginia Expo & Market on Saturday, January 20, 2 – 9 PM in the Crystal Ballroom at Hotel Roanoke. Featuring sampling and sales of Virginia-crafted foods, local libations, handicrafts, and herbals. Complete the evening with music, dancing, and socializing from 8-10 PM.

Youth Program

VABF is offering a Youth Program for children ages 5 – 12, and a special teen program for 12-18 year olds for only $60, including Saturday lunch and dinner and Sunday lunch . Youth Program Registration is offered as an add on to Conference registration or as a stand alone registration.

Lodging

Hotel Roanoke

Rooms in the VABF room block at Hotel Roanoke are $135 + tax  a night. Rooms may be booked online here or by calling (540) 985-5900 (or toll free at 866-594-4722) between the hours of 8am-5:30pm Monday – Friday and say you’re with the VABF Room block. Cut off date is Friday, December 29, 2023.

Book with the VABF-SFOP group rate at The Hotel Roanoke

Check out our Lodging page for more info! 

Silent Auction

Always a fun experience to bid on unique and useful farm and garden products! If you have homemade gifts, books, or items on your farm that you no longer need that may be valuable to someone else, bring them on to the Silent Auction at the Conference! Great way to donate to VABF!

Locally Sourced Meals

VABF is working to procure the majority of our Conference food from local member farms. We look forward to supporting our member farms and enjoying delicious, fresh, local food from the farms below! All Conference Registrations include lunch and dinner on Saturday, lunch on Sunday and morning coffee and tea.

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February 2024 Event

Pasa 2024

Pasa Sustainable Agriculture Conference

Thursday Feb 8 – Saturday February 10

Pasa’s 2024 Sustainable Agriculture Conference

Lancaster, Pennsylvania on February 8–10

On Thursday February 8, 4-5 pm, I am presenting Storage Vegetables for off-season sales

Sweet potatoes crated in the field.
Photo Nina Gentle

Grow crops you can sell during the winter, while allowing yourself some down-time and reprieve from outdoor work. Choose suitable crops, schedules and storage conditions. Understand your weather and basic crop protection. This workshop will provide tables of cold-hardiness and details of four ranges of cold-hardy crops (warm and cool weather crops to harvest and store before very cold weather; crops to keep alive in the ground further into winter, then store; hardy crops to store in the ground and harvest during the winter, and overwinter crops for early spring harvests before the main season). It includes tables of storage conditions needed for different vegetables and suggestions of suitable storage methods, with and without electricity.

On Saturday, February 10, 11.30 am -12.30 pm, I am presenting Crop Rotations for Vegetables and COver Crops

Crop Rotation Pinwheel

This workshop offers ideas to design a planting sequence that maximizes utilizing cover crops and reduces pest and disease likelihood. Pam discusses formal rotations and ad hoc systems for shoehorning minor crops into available spaces. She also discusses cover crops suitable at various times of the year, particularly winter cover crops between vegetable crops in successive years. Pam provides examples of undersowing cover crops in vegetable plantings and no-till options.

In addition to my sessions, you’ll find 70+ other workshops and discussions on a diverse array of farming and food system topics:

Keynote Speaker Reginaldo Haslett-Marroquin

Plenary keynote speaker Reginaldo Haslett-Marroquin is a farmer and the founder of the Regenerative Agriculture Alliance, a non-profit organization focused on scaling up a systems-level regenerative poultry solution that restores ecological balance, produces nourishing food, and puts money back into the hands of farmers and food chain workers. He is also the co-founder and CEO of Tree-Range® Farms, the for-profit market-facing arm of the system working with family farms to raise chickens in their natural habitat—the jungle!

Dr Heber M Brown

Rev. Dr. Heber M. Brown III, another plenary speaker at this year’s conference, is a pastor, public speaker, community organizer, and social entrepreneur. He is the founder of the Black Church Food Security Network, which advances food security and food sovereignty by co-creating Black food ecosystems anchored by Black congregations in partnership with Black farmers and others.

Ira Wallace

Other featured speakers include Ira Wallace of Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, Zach Loeks of Ecosystem Solution Institute, Catherine Sylvestre of Ferme des Quatre-Temps, Allyson Levy & Scott Serrano of Hortus Arboretum & Botanical Gardens, Russ Wilson of Wilson Land & Cattle Co. and the FairShare CSA Coalition.

Zach Loeks
Catherine Sylvestre

 Learn more & register

Bell’s Bend Tennessee Farming and Education

Normally you could expect a “Cover Crops for the Month” post in the first week of the month, but October’s will be next week. I have been teaching at several events in middle Tennessee, and want to tell you about those, and include the slideshows for those that want a second look, or those who wish they had been there.

LONG HUNGRY CREEK FARM –
© 2012 photograph by Alan Messer [alanmesser.com]
We had a day and a half at Jeff Poppen’s 250 acre Long Hungry Creek Farm, where a very laid back outdoor Southeast Regional Biodynamic Farming Conference was going on. It’s in Red Boiling Springs, TN. Jeff is also known as the Barefoot Farmer, for  reasons that are obvious once you meet him. Jeff began making biodynamic preparations and using the biodynamic farming method in 1986. Jeff and colleagues ran a community-supported agriculture program from 1988-2022, and they have offered internship opportunities since 1997.
Jeff Poppen’s logo
Not all the participants practice biodynamics (I don’t), and the conference was quite eclectic. I gave a presentation about growing Asian Greens to a very lively, question-filled group. Here’s the slideshow:
Ira Wallace and I also hosted a Q&A session on Seed Saving and Community Living. We did answer two short questions about seed saving, but most of the interest was in community living. The questioners were thinking about cohousing, or cooperative farming, or intentional communities, and had very considered questions.
We stayed two nights in the eccentric historic Armour’s Hotel with many theme-decorated rooms. Mine was about Red Hats. Definitely an experience.
A room at the Armour’s Hotel, Red Boiling Springs. The hotel’s photo.
Then we went to the Nashville Food Project on Sunday. Nashville Food Project is a community food project that brings people together to grow, cook and share nourishing food. They do community gardens, food recovery and community meals including thousands of after-school meals for kids, meals for nursing homes and all sorts. They have a lovely building for meetings, meals, cooking and everything related.

In their gardens, they grow organic food intensively and share resources with others interested in growing their own food.

In their sparkling commercial kitchens, they use recovered, donated and garden-grown food to prepare and cook made-from-scratch meals. Donations come from farmers, grocers, restaurants and markets. 1 in 7 Nashvillians do not have access to the food they want and need. Currently 40% of all food produced in the USA is thrown away. This knowledge drives the Nashville Food Project to continually explore new ways to recover would-be wasted food and steward it toward its best and highest use… and what better use for food than to feed neighbors!In their community, they share nourishing meals in partnership with local poverty-disrupting nonprofits and community groups.

My presentation was on Year Round Vegetable Production, Year Round Vegetable Production Dawling 2023 60mins

We stayed two nights with Dr Brenda Butka and her husband Dr Tom John, who  were very welcoming hosts.They are founding members of the Bell’s Bend Organic Farms Conservation Corridor. Bells Bend Conservation Corridor’s mission is to promote and protect the rural character of the Bells Bend. (It’s within the city limits, and yet has never been built on.) They are working to establish an outdoor recreational, agricultural, and residential conservation district that serves as a county, state and regional planning model for open space preservation.

They are raising money to provide funding to individual land owners seeking conservation easements from the Land Trust for Tennessee. While developing and funding programs that promote farm education, environmental stewardship, and the importance of land preservation. They currently have over 350 acres in Tennessee Land Trust Conservation Easements.

The land currently includes Beaman Park and Bell’s Bend Park, open to the public.
Beaman Park, Bell’s Bend, Nashville, TN
On Monday, I spoke to the Women Farmers of Middle Tennessee at Old School Farm, where a Scottish philanthropist bought and renovated an abandoned school house and set up a non-profit farm employing people with disabilities.
They work together with MillarRich, a healthcare company that specializes in providing family-style foster care and employment services for adults and children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. They also work with The Store which operates a year-round free grocery store allowing people referred to them (and the referring agencies) to shop for their basic needs at no charge. They may shop for food to supplement their income during times of crisis and as they work toward self-sufficiency.
I gave a presentation for the Women Farmers of Middle Tennessee on Production Planning for Late Fall, Winter and Early Spring Vegetable Crops. Here’s the slideshow:
It was inspiring to find so many places doing good work around healthy food, good livelihood, food justice, fresh air and cooperation.

More on Blueberries; Crop Planning Slideshow

Admiring a cluster of blueberries.
Credit Marilyn Rayne Squier

More Resources on Blueberries

Since my post on Fruit for the Month of February, I have found some more really good resources on blueberries

Blueberries are easy to grow if conditions are right. They are a popular choice with organic growers, because they don’t need any pesticides to produce a good crop. They do, however, need annual pruning to be sure of a high quality crop. Pruning also keeps the bushes at a height easy to harvest from. Pruning is done during the dormant season, usually between December-early March in the Piedmont.

Some people are reluctant to prune because it does remove some of the flower buds and reduces berry production for that year, but if pruning is not carried out, berries become smaller each year and the health of the bushes declines. Pruning is an investment in the long-term success of your plants!

The Growing Small Farms website links to many how-to videos and fact sheets, with diagrams and photos. There are excellent resources on pruning and blueberry production in general. Everything you need to know about pruning blueberry bushes!

Side-by-side comparison of blueberry bushes before and after pruning. Slide by Bill Cline
Read more at: https://growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/2023/01/february-is-a-great-time-to-prune-blueberries/

Another good resource is this article in the Agricultural Research Service newsletter

More People are Getting the ‘Blues’

By Scott Elliott, ARS Office of Communications.

Here is some recent information on blueberry research. New varieties, and a disease to watch out for.

Researchers at the Horticultural Crops Production and Genetic Improvement Research (HPCGIR) Unit in Corvallis, Oregon, are developing new cultivars of not just blueberries, but also blackberries, red raspberries, black raspberries, and strawberries to meet the particular needs of growers in the Pacific Northwest. Also useful to those in other areas.

“We focus on improving the shelf life of fruit so that it reaches consumers with consistently better texture and flavor,” said Claire Luby, plant geneticist with HCPGIR. Perhaps a large challenge for Luby and her colleagues is developing a cultivar that is resistant to a disease known to be a scourge of the berry: blueberry shock virus.

Blighted flower clusters due to blueberry shock virus infection. https://www.ncipmc.org/projects/pest-alerts/blueberry-shock-virus-bromoviridae-harvirus/

Click to download a PDF version of the Blueberry Shock Virus publication.

“We’re studying diverse blueberry plants to understand the genetic basis for blueberry shock virus, which can significantly impact yields for farmers,” she said. “Our hope is to use the insights from this project to develop new cultivars that are resistant, or at least more tolerant to, the disease.” Blueberry shock virus has caused annual crop losses of 34-90% in the Pacific Northwest.

Researchers combine traditional plant breeding with genomics to create their disease-resistant cultivars. The traditional technique (used in one form or another by people trying to improve agricultural crops for millennia) is to take pollen from one plant and use it to pollinate a different plant with complementary characteristics. They study the progeny of these crosses, looking for new characteristics that meet the goals of the breeding programs. Traditional blueberry breeding can take more than 20 years from the time an initial cross is made to when a consumer might eat from a resulting cultivar.

“We try to improve the accuracy and speed of the plant breeding process,” Luby explained. “We are now able to obtain a lot more genetic information about the plants and we can use that information to potentially predict whether an offspring of a given cross might have the characteristics we are looking for before we plant it out in the field. This is important because it can increase the speed of the plant breeding process.”

“Our goals are to develop blueberries that require fewer chemical inputs to fight disease, which can be better for both the environment and for growers’ bottom lines,” Luby said.

 The Agricultural Research Service is the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s chief scientific in-house research agency. Daily, ARS focuses on solutions to agricultural problems affecting America. Each dollar invested in U.S. agricultural research results in $20 of economic impact.

Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production


Twin Oaks Garden Colored Spots Plan for crop planning

At the in-person Pasa Sustainable Agriculture Conference, I gave two presentations. I also sent a recorded workshop for their virtual conference in January. That one was Feeding the Soil. I’ve just scoured through all 8 pages on my website that check the category “Slideshows”. I found Feeding the Soil twice.

My Alliums Year Round presentation is new this year and I posted the handout after my presentation at VABF. Pasa had shorter workshops, so I pruned the slideshow, but left the handout with the “bonus material”.

My other presentation at Pasa was Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production. That is one of the very first topics I tackled when I started out as a speaker, so the three versions on this website span the past ten years. 2014, 2016, 2019. Here is the 90 minute 2023 version and ts handout:

Crop Planning 2023 90 min presentation Crop Planning 6 pg Handout 2023

 

My February Gardening and Farming News Roundup

My February Gardening and Farming News Roundup

After a flurry of conferences in November, December and January, I have now updated my Events page.

Events where I will be presenting workshops, that are still to come:

Pasa Sustainable Agriculture Conference, Lancaster, PA, Feb 8-11, https://pasafarming.org/conference/

Organic Growers School Spring Conference, Mars Hill, NC, Feb 24-26 https://organicgrowersschool.org/conferences/spring/

Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, NC, March 26-April 1 2023 www.folkschool.org

Mother Earth News Fair, Lawrence, Kansas, April 29-30, 2023.  (Sat-Sun)

Mother Earth News Fair,  Erie, Pennsylvania, July 15-16, 2023

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Daylight Savings Time

Have you ever wondered if farmers really did want DST? The answer is probably not. Read the interesting article in The Modern Farmer

https://modernfarmer.com/2022/03/daylight-saving-time-farmers/

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Millet is Having a Moment. Is the Ancient Grain Ready for a Resurgence?

Also see this article in the Modern Farmer, about 2023 as the UN Year of Millets. This drought-tolerant grain deserves more attention.

https://modernfarmer.com/2022/12/year-of-millet/

Jean Hediger grows Proso millet on her Nunn, Colorado farm
Photography courtesy of Jean Hediger

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Jumping Worms are also Having a Moment

Invasive Jumping Worm
Matt Bert, Piedmont Master Gardeners

The January newsletter of the Piedmont Master Gardeners (The Garden Shed) has this sobering article about Invasive Jumping Worms by Cathy Caldwell. The article includes the all-important information on how to distinguish an invasive jumping worm from any other kind of earthworm (it’s not hard!), and what to do if you find one.

https://piedmontmastergardeners.org/article/invasive-jumping-worms/

WSLS.com/Destructive jumping worms spotted throughout Virginia

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Climate-Resilient (Heat-tolerant) Vegetable Varieties

by Jon Braunfeld

Heatmaster tomatoes.
Jon Braunfeld, Piedmont Master Gardeners

Another article in the January Garden Shed has helpful information on heat-tolerant vegetable varieties. In good time for us to order seeds and try some tomato varieties alongside our usual ones

https://piedmontmastergardeners.org/article/climate-resilient-vegetable-varieties/

Year-Round Hoophouse Vegetables slideshow, VABF Handouts

Tatsoi in the mist, November.
Photo Wren Vile

Busy Conference Season is here!

I just got back from the Virginia Association for Biological Farming conference in Roanoke. There I gave a half-day presentation on Year-Round Hoophouse Vegetables, which you can watch here:

Year-Round Hoophouse Vegetables 240m

The conference was very well-attended, and not everyone at my workshop on Friday, or the Alliums Year-Round 90 minute workshop on Sunday morning got a handout. I promised to post them here, and now I’m making good. I’m also posting the handout for the third workshop I gave, Asian Greens in the Winter Hoophouse. This rounds out the set, and gives a chance to those who went to a different workshop at that time to get a look in.

Year-Round Hoophouse Vegetables 8 pg handout 2023 Alliums Year-Round Asian Greens in the Winter Hoophouse 2023

This coming weekend I will be venturing north to NOFA-Mass and giving a presentation on Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production.

To those who are wondering what happened to my monthly post Fruit for the Month, I postponed it. There isn’t so much fruit in January, is there?

Conference Season, cold damage update, potato yield error in my book

Conference Season

It’s busy season for conferences, so I’ll tell you about the next two I’m speaking at. You can go to my Events page to see what’s further ahead.

This weekend (January 6-8 (Fri-Sun), 2023) is the Virginia Association for Biological Farming at the Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center

VABF 2023 Conference banner

Virginia Association for Biological Farming

23rd annual Virginia Biological Farming Conference

VABF Conference INFO Home Page

The 23rd annual Virginia Biological Farming Conference is Virginia’s premier organic and sustainable agricultural conference! The Conference brings together farmers, gardeners, eaters, educators and advocates of biological and organic farming and gardening. The Conference will be held in person January 6-8, 2023 at The Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center.

The three-day Conference includes:  Full and Half Day Pre-Conference intensive workshops, 50+ sessions and workshops, presentations and panel discussions, 40+ tradeshow exhibitors, locally sourced farm meals and book signings. The Conference features a Silent Auction and networking opportunities including regional networking meetings, and the Taste of Virginia Expo & Social! 

Keynote Speakers

Dr. Elaine Ingham, Soil Food Web School

Leah Penniman, Founding Co-director Soul Fire Farm

I will be presenting a half-day workshop 8am-noon on Friday Jan 6, on Year-Round Hoophouse Vegetables

90 minute workshop Sunday January 8, 8.30 am – 10 am Alliums Year Round
90 minute workshop Sunday January 8, 10.30 am – noon, Asian Greens in the Winter Hoophouse

See the 2023 Session Summaries

Taste of Virginia Expo and Market & Social

Included in the Conference Registration and free and open to the public is the Taste of Virginia Expo & Market on Saturday, January 7, 2 – 9 PM in the Crystal Ballroom at Hotel Roanoke. Featuring sampling and sales of Virginia-crafted foods, local libations, handicrafts, and herbals. Complete the evening with music, dancing, and socializing from 8-10 PM.

Locally Sourced Meals

VABF and LEAP Local Food Hub are working together to procure the majority of our Conference food from local member farms. We look forward to supporting our member farms and enjoying delicious, fresh, local food from the farms below! All Conference Registrations include lunch and dinner on Saturday, lunch on Sunday and morning coffee and tea.

VABF logo

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NOFA-Mass Annual Winter Conference, January 12-14, 2023

Northeast Organic Farming Association, Massachusetts Chapter.

The Conference will be held at Worcester State University on Saturday January 14 and online Sunday January 15. We encourage you to make the most of the range of possibilities – i.e. tastings in person, international discussions over Zoom, tool modifications, storytelling. Creativity is welcome!

An organic lunch on Saturday is sandwiched by over 40 educational workshops for a full day of learning and socializing.

This is a valuable opportunity for farmers, gardeners, homesteaders, educators, and environmentalists to share resources and ideas to grow our vibrant organic community. We are excited to come together around this winter’s theme, “Cooperative Foodways: Building Our Future Together.”

The conference hosts 40+ workshops and draws hundreds of attendees from throughout the Northeast.

I will be giving a workshop on Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production

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Cold damage update

Bright Lights chard with cold-damaged stems.
Dec 27.
Pam Dawling

I reported very little damage to our hoophouse crops last week when it was 2F (-17C) outdoors. Since then, no plants keeled over, but some leaves are showing tan patches of dead cells, either where the leaves touched the rowcover. or where they were not properly covered. So, we have lost some leaves of senposai, a few of spinach, some on the yarrow we planted for beneficial insects. But, overall, I’m extremely happy with the good condition of our crops.

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Mistake about potato yields

Sorting potatoes two weeks after harvest to remove problem potatoes before rot spreads.
Photo Wren Vile

Yes made a mistake back in 2012, when I wrote Sustainable Market Farming, which I hope has been corrected in reprints since I was first notified of this in August 2019. If you have an older edition of my book, it might still have the error. In yield numbers on page 376, it says about potatoes, “Yields are likely to be 150 lbs/ac (168 kg/ha); 200 lbs/ac (224 kg/ha) is a good yield”.

“Yes, my mistake indeed! On page 45, I have the (better!) info that potatoes can yield at least 110 pounds/100 feet, or 49.9 kg/30m. I think I probably meant to write on page 376, that a low yield could be 150 pounds/100ft, which is equivalent to 11 tons/acre. In the metric system, that’s 223 kg/100m, or 24.4 tons/ha. Other sources suggest average yields could be almost twice this. And good yields, even 4 times the low numbers.

So it should say

“Yields are likely to be 11 tons/ac (24.4 tons/ha); 22 tons/ac (48.8 tons/ha) is a good yield”

That’s US tons of 2000 pounds, metric tons of 1000 kg. Or for a smaller scale, probably closer to what most of us are growing,

“Yields are likely to be 150 lbs/100ft (223 kg/100m); 200 lbs/100 ft (300 kg/100m) is a good yield”

I hope I’ve got all the conversions right.