Speaking Events September 2022-April 2023

 

Signing books at a winter conference.
Photo P J Kingfisher

I started to make in-person bookings again a year ago, then Omicron arrived and lots of conferences switched to being virtual. The only in-person event I attended this spring was the PASA conference, which I enjoyed a lot. I am still doing some virtual events, and planning some live ones too. Everything is subject to change!

As of right now I have two in-person events booked, and one new podcast interview. June and July are the months for speakers to apply to make winter and spring conference presentations, so I’ll be doing that! See my Events Tab for ideas I have of which events to apply to.

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Center for Arkansas Farms and Food logo

September 2022 Event

Center for Arkansas Farms and Food

https://farmandfoodsystem.uada.edu/

Sunday September 18, 2022, 1-4.30 pm

High Tunnel Season Extension (Cool Season)

View through the hoophouse doors in December.
Photo Kathleen Slattery

Contact 479-575-2798 or [email protected]

CAFF Beginning Farmer/Apprenticeship Farm Tours and Workshops

Workshop: In-person. CAFF Farm, 1005 Meade Ave, Fayetteville

CAFF was developed to strengthen and expand our food and farming system, enhance local communities, and provide opportunities for farmers, food entrepreneurs and food system leaders.

Combining traditional and experiential learning opportunities, their Farm School and Apprenticeship programs teach the production and business skills to develop resilient and sustainable businesses.

CAFF is dedicated to increasing the number of thriving farms and farmers in Arkansas. To accomplish this, the center provides farm education, training, networking, and resources. Creating a supportive farm community network will bring more people into farming and help retain current farmers by increasing their success.

Join CAFF at the farm to learn about extending your growing season with high tunnels. Space for this class is limited.

The CAFF Jan. 11 to March 1 two-hour courses remain available for viewing through Oct. 31. To pay the $10 access fee, please visit the registration page and email Heather Friedrich, program manager, at [email protected] to confirm receipt.


March 2023 Event

John C Campbell Folk School 

https://www.folkschool.org/index.php www.folkschool.org

March 26-April 1 2023

One Folk School Road, Brasstown, NC 28902

A week-long course:

Growing Vegetables Year Round

A harvest cart with cabbage, kale, squash and lettuce.
Photo by Wren Vile

Make the most of your space and time growing vegetables at home using planting schedules and techniques timed to the seasons, seed varieties, crop rotation, and use of protective structures such as coldframes and greenhouses. Learn labor saving and innovative planting and soil fertility techniques for growing and harvesting a full range of fresh, delicious, organic vegetables. Fill your salad bowl and dinner plate year round!

Folk School logo

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Accidental Gods Podcast

Exploring the liminal space between science and spirituality, philosophy and politics, art, creativity – working towards the conscious evolution of humanity.

Accidental Gods is two women, Manda Scott and Faith Tilleray, dreaming of a different future. Faith Tilleray designs the website and the Instagram feed. Manda Scott is a podcaster (also: novelist, smallholder, renegade economist etc. etc. ). Both are living in the UK.

Accidental Gods Blog

Recent posts include Imagination Activism, Bioregionalism, Sacred Earth Activism, managing the New Economy (based on SEEDS regenerative currency), and Making Use of Methane.

Workhorse Crops for March

 

Flats of transplants in our cold frame ready for transplanting.
Pam Dawling

We’ve just got a few months left in my monthly series of 14 Workhorse Crops (asparagus, beans, cabbage, carrots, chard, collards/kale, garlic, potatoes, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, winter squash, zucchini/summer squash). These crops are reliable and productive under a range of weather conditions. You can use the search box to find other posts in the series, such as February.

Spring is on the way! Many more crops to plant this month! Our average last frost (over the past 14 years) here in central Virginia is April 29. We reach 11 hours of daylight on February 20, and we and everyone else will reach 12 hours on the March 20 Equinox. It’s all go!

In our hoophouse we are clearing bolting crops and transplanting spinach (the “Racehorse” of this series) wherever we have space along the edges of the beds. The tomatoes go in in March and squash, cucumbers, and peppers in April. Those crops will occupy the centers of the beds, before taking over the whole width. Our greenhouse is filling up with transplants.

Workhorse Crops to Plant in March

Young spring cabbage with a hay mulch. Wren VIle
Cabbage

We transplant our early cabbage around March 6. We had trouble with mice in the greenhouse in early February and lost quite a few seedlings. We also made the mistake of using seed that was too old. So we will have only one bed of early cabbage this year, not two. We did try to make up for the losses by resowing fast-maturing varieties, but we still ended up short. We like Farao (60d) and Early Jersey Wakefield (63d). Both numbers are seed to harvest. Subtract 20 days if counting from transplanting to maturity. We will cover the bed with thick rowcover for the first few weeks after transplanting.

Carrots
Newly emerged carrots with indicator beets.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

We sow carrots in mid-March, and again at the end of March. The mid-March sowing takes from 9-19 days to germinate, depending in on the soil temperature. The end of March sowing takes 9-12 days. We sow a few Indicator Beets at the beginning of the bed. Beets germinate one day sooner than carrots at almost any temperature. When we see the red loops of the beet stems emerging, we know it’s the day to flame weed the carrots.

Chard

We sow chard (and leaf beet, the type of chard closest to spinach) on March 24, but you can start earlier if you want earlier harvests. Chard seed will germinate from 41°F (5°C) to 95°F (35°C), and the best temperature is 86°F (30°C), when it needs only 4 days. Our goal is to use chard as our main summer leafy green after the kale, collards, broccoli and Asian greens have all bolted. In spring we usually have lots of cabbage, broccoli, collards and kale. Maybe we should do some earlier chard this year to make up for lack of broccoli and troubles with cabbage and over wintered kale?

Collards and kale
Young collard plant (Morris Heading, I think) Pam Dawling

In mid-March we will be transplanting Vates kale and Champion or Georgia Green collards directly from the soil in our hoophouse out into the garden. We usually grow Morris Heading collards but this year we are trying something different. We’ll use rowcover for the first few weeks. I have written before about bare-root transplants. This method saves us a lot of time, and saves greenhouse space. See Workhorse Crops in February for details about sowing these crops in the hoophouse.

Potatoes

Another mid-March task for us is potato planting. I wrote a whole series about every stage of potato growing last year. So I won’t say more here.

Hoophouse beans
Tomatoes, green beans and cucumbers in June.
Photo Alexis Yamashita

We don’t grow green bush beans in our hoophouse every year, but this year we will. As with other late winter/early spring hoophouse crops, we sow beans in our hoophouse a month earlier than we can sow outside. We aim to sow in the hoophouse on March 20. Of course, if it is particularly cold then, we will wait. We’ve found that beans sprawl more in our hoophouse, so we buy an upright fast-maturing variety, such as Strike.  We’ve also found that the edge beds are too cold for beans in late March, so if the crop rotation would have us use an edge bed, we sow beets or some other crop instead. We will use thick rowcover on nights that are forecast to be frosty outdoors. See mention of hoophouse beans in January.

Hoophouse tomatoes
March hoophouse bed prepared for tomato transplants – holes dug, compost added.
Photo Wren Vile

Mid-March is our target transplanting time for tomatoes in the hoophouse. We grow two beds, one of earlies (less than 71 days) and one bed of reliable favorites (Tropic, Jubilee) along with two plants each of other varieties we like or are trying out. Each 96ft (29 m) bed has two cherry or grape tomato varieties, with two plants of each. We plant the shortest varieties at the east end and the tallest (the cherries) at the west end, so that all the plants get the best possible light. (Our hoophouse has the long walls on the south and north.) We update our Tomato Rampancy Rating list each year.

This year in the early bed, we are growing Five Star Grape 62d, Sun Gold 57d, Garden Peach 71d, Mountain Magic 66d, Stupice 62d and Glacier 56d. Mountain Magic is a new favorite (it doesn’t suffer from green/yellow shoulders) and we have increased the number of those plants, reducing numbers of Stupice and Glacier.

Hoophouse tomatoes with yellow shoulders. Glacier or Stupice.
Photo Pam Dawling

In the other bed we are growing Cherry Bomb 64d, Black Cherry 64-75d, Geronimo78d, Striped German 78d, Amy’s Sugar Gem 75d, Green Zebra 72-86d, Cherokee Purple 72-85d, Tropic 80d, Jubilee 80d, Estiva 70d, Pink Boar 75d, and Mountain Fresh Plus 75d.

We use the Florida string-weaving (or basket-weaving) technique to support our plants. More about that task in future.

Indoor sowings for later transplanting outside or in the hoophouse

In March we will sow our hoophouse cucumbers and squash, and our outdoor peppers, eggplant, maincrop tomatoes, and our first outdoor zucchini and summer squash. And some non-workhorse crops. Also, we start our sweet potato slips. I covered growing sweet potato slips in another post. On March 24 we start our chard, as already mentioned.

Workhorse Crops to Harvest in March

Collards and Kale can be harvested outdoors here in March, from overwintered plants. This past fall, we were late getting our kale established and the combination of a mild December and a cold January has damaged them badly. We had 3 nights in January down to 10°F (-12°C). Normally we can harvest those beds once a week each in March. Our mnemonic for sustainable harvesting of leafy greens is “8 for later”, meaning we leave at least eight inner leaves when harvesting the outer ones, to ensure the plants have enough strength to regrow.

Overwintered Carrots and Cabbage are a possibility some years, but not this one!

Garlic scallions prepared for sale. Typepad.com

Garlic scallions are ready to harvest here from mid-March. These baby garlic plants offer a welcome change form leafy greens and root vegetables. We start to dig the plants once the leaves have reached 7” (18 cm). Wash and trim, cook and enjoy! Yes, you can eat them raw if you like! Some years we have made a big planting, and it has provided for us into May (when they are starting to bulb).

Hoophouse Workhorse Harvests in March

Our Red and White Russian kales are now producing well. These are Siberian-type kales, that keep growing (a bit!) in cold weather. We harvest the outer leaves and stand them on end in a bucket in a little water. The wilt very easily, so we try to keep them in the shade and get them to the cooler promptly.

White Russian kale ready for harvest in our hoophouse. Photo Pam Dawling

Bulls blood beet greens, chard, and some greens not in our Workhorse group, (turnip greens, and spinach) are still going strong. Our experimental carrots are still doing OK, although I’m not a fan of giving them hoophouse space for such a long time with no harvests. I think we would have done better to harvest them in December. The foliage is getting bedraggled, and I fear the roots are getting woody and less sweet. This is all an experiment by one of the others on the crew, who will be studying the results.

Workhorse Crops from Storage in March

In March we can eat carrots, garlic, potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash and cabbage from storage, while they last. We do still have potatoes, sweet potatoes and butternut squash. Also we have frozen summer goodies, and pickled things, sauerkraut, pickled beans, and canned goods like salsa.

Garlic beds next to rowcovered broccoli beds, under a stormy sky.
Photo Wren Vile

Workhorse Crops Special Topics for March: DIY Weather Forecasting

Learn your local weather patterns by keeping records of daily max and min temperatures and rainfall, and watching what happens.

Our mid-Atlantic climate is controlled by three weather systems, mainly by moisture from the Gulf of Mexico, the Bermuda High Pressure area in summer, and recurrent waves of cold Canadian air in winter.

Rain (statistically fairly evenly distributed throughout the year in our county) has slight peaks in January, February and March and again in early June and August.

Some parts of our area can experience long periods of drought: September-November is the drier season but it’s also the hurricane season, so the net result is very variable.

We use Wunderground forecasts, but subtract 5F° (2.5C°) from their forecast night lows for our nearest town, and mentally downgrade the chance of rain by 10%, as rain often passes us by as it scoots along the river valley north of us. 3/30 pm in winter is a good time to look at the night forecast.

WeatherSpark is a great resource. You can enter your zipcode or town and discover a large range of charts and graphs about weather in your area. It will help you learn what to expect.

Immature frosty cabbage. Photo Lori Katz

As for predicting frost, here are some of the factors to consider, that make frost more likely here:

  • If the date is after 10/14 or before 4/30 (ie within the average range for frosts here)
  • If the Wunderground forecast low for Louisa Northside is 37°F (3°C) or less.
  • If the daytime high temperature was less than 70°F (21°C).
  • If the temperature at sunset is less than 50°F (10°C).
  • If the sky is clear.
  • If the soil is dry and cool.
  • If the moon is full or new.
  • If there is little or no breeze, although if temperatures are falling fast, the wind is from NW and the sky is clear, then polar air may be moving in, and we’ll get a hard freeze.
  • If the dew point forecast is low, close to freezing, a frost is more likely. Frost is unlikely if the dew point is 43°F (6°C) or more.

More on Insectary Flowers; Vegetable Crop Resources, Especially Weeds

 

Borage flowers attract many beneficial insects. Spot the honeybee! Photo Raddysh Acorn

More on Insectary Flowers (to attract beneficial insects)

A reader responded to my post Growing flowers to attract aphid predators in early spring

“Isn’t too cold for the predators to be around, Pam? unless they hibernated in the greenhouse. but even so, it’s still cold in there at night. We have some aphids too in the tatsoi and some of the lettuce, so thank you for all the tips, and the life cycle. I had not quite realized that the cycle was so short. I grow borage in the hoophouse but in the ground – the plants get large and gorgeous with clouds of blue flowers in March and April – much bigger and healthier than anything I try to grow outside. The honeybees absolutely love it and they attract are a lot of other insects too.”

Yes, it has been still too cold for predatory insects to be around, until this week, when ladybugs greet us around every corner. Our idea with the flowering plants was that by starting the plants in the fall, we’d have actual flowers earlier than if we started in “spring”, and that perhaps the extra stresses would even cause the plants to flower earlier. Apart from the borage, none of the others have flowered yet (Feb 23). We likely need to fine tune our sowing dates. We sowed at the very beginning of September and the very end of October. That two-month gap probably has better sowing dates! We noticed that some of our plants were not very cold-hardy. Some died and some had to be pruned of dead bits. Since then, we started more flowers in our greenhouse on February 1. Another thing we’re noticing since early February is that the plants in pots dry out very fast. It’s probably better to get the flowers in the ground in the hoophouse and greenhouse as soon as they are big enough, as suggested by the results of my reader quoted above, with borage.We had thought that having them in pots would enable us to move them into trouble spots.

Vegetable Crop Resources, Especially Weeds

Spiny amaranth – a weed to exterminate by careful pulling.
Photo Pam Dawling

A newly released handbook from Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), Manage Weeds On Your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies by Charles L. Mohler, John R. Teasdale and Antonio DiTommaso, is set to help us all. I haven’t read it yet (although I am looking forward to that!), so this is not a review, But these are three big names in weed science, and SARE is well-known for providing solid information on sustainable farming.

Silver Queen sweet corn with a wilting pulled amaranth plant in the center
Photo Kathryn Simmons

I had the great good fortune to attend a workshop by Chuck Mohler years ago, and got some realizations that forever changed my approach to weeds. Top of the list is that some weeds, such as pigweed (amaranth species), don’t distribute any seeds until they have grown very big. Until that point they are not threatening next year’s farming efforts. We used to get huge pigweed plants in our sweet corn, and fatalistically did nothing once we were in there harvesting, somehow believing it was “too late”. No, it’s not! They hadn’t seeded. We started to make a practice of pulling the huge pigweed every two days while harvesting corn. Often it was necessary to stand on the base of the corn plant to hold it in place, while pulling the weed. Then all we had to do was drop the pigweed between the rows. Sweet corn ripens in hot weather and the weeds soon died, rather than re-rooting. All those big leaves sucked the moisture right out of the plants. Be extra careful if you have spiny amaranth. We have twice eliminated this weed form our gardens, by diligent hand-pulling, only to have it reappear a few years later!

Galinsoga – a fast growing, fast-seeding weed of cultivated soil.
Photo Wren Vile

Conversely, galinsoga forms seeds very soon after germinating, while still small. This weed is one to strike early and repeatedly. It readily re-roots in damp soil. Our strategy when we are too late to hoe and have to hand-pull them, is to shake off as much soil as possible, then to either twist and break the stem (if there are not many), or “shingle” the weeds, laying them down with the roots of one on top of the leaves of the previously pulled plant, providing a surface of roots all exposed to the air, and none touching the soil. This works quite well. Timely hoeing is much better, of course!

Manage Weeds has chapters on How to Think About Weeds, Cultural Weed Management, Mechanical and Other Physical Weed Management Methods, Profiles of successful managers,  and then the alphabetical rogues gallery of grass weeds and broadleaf weeds.

This book and all the online information from SARE is free of charge. You can buy print copies if that suits you better. Other good resources from SARE, while you’re at their website, include several other books:

Building Soils for Better Crops

Managing Cover Crops Profitably For many of us, this is the “Cover Crops Bible”

Systems Research for Agriculture

Crop Rotation on Organic Farms 

There are also podcasts, bulletins, videos, Topic Rooms and interactive pages to explore.

Winter Vegetable Production Methods

For those who missed the Pasa Sustainable Agriculture conference, here is my slideshow Winter Vegetable Production Methods, From the Field to the Hoophouse

Winter Vegetable Production Methods, From the Field to the Hoophouse Dawling 60 mins 2022 2.11 9am

Some Highlights of the PASA Conference

I enjoyed attending the in-person conference of Pasa Sustainable Agriculture. This is the first conference I’ve been to in person in two whole years. PASA did a lot to ensure the conference was as Covid-safe as possible. They limited the number of attendees (there were still plenty to ensure lots of chances to exchange information). Everyone had to test on their day of travel to the conference, and speakers had to test every day of speaking. For me that was all three days. Everyone was masked, nearly all with KN95 “real” masks. The hotel housekeeping staff only came in after we left. (We could have requested the service, but, heck, I can make my own bed!) In the workshop rooms, the chairs were spaced 6 ft apart. The trade show had wide aisles, and meals could be taken out of the dining room to a quiet spot. Just getting to be there was a big highlight for me! I left feeling energized and enthused, and very grateful to the PASA team for preparing such a successful event.

There were four sessions of workshops each day, with one-hour breaks between, allowing time to visit uncrowded trade booths, catch up with old friends, and make new ones. We were well-supplied with snacks and beverages during the breaks. There were socials with more snacks at the end of the day.

I did have trouble with the conference app, but then, my phone is limited in what it can do. Likewise I failed to upload my slideshows to the platform, so I ran them off my flashdrive. My pdf handouts did make it onto the app, so if you wanted one of my handouts, you can find it there and here:

Young Yukina Savoy plants.
Photo Ethan Hirsh
Optimize your Asian Greens Production Dawling PASA handout 2022 2.10 9am
Young spinach seedlings.
Photo Pam Dawling
Winter Vegetable Production Methods From the Field to the Hoophouse Dawling 2022 2.11 9am 6 page handout
Sweet potatoes in storage. An ideal crop for winter meals, as they store at room temperature for a long time, maybe seven or eight months.
Photo Pam Dawling
Growing Sweet Potatoes from Start to Finish Dawling 4 pg handout 2022 2.12 11am.docx

Each of the ten workshop sessions had a choice of eight or nine workshops. I had thought I might hunker down in my hotel room when I wasn’t speaking, to minimize my chance of catching Covid, but as permaculture author Darrell Frey said “This feels safer than going to the grocery store!”

I enjoyed several workshops presented by others, including:

On-Farm Experience with Organic No-Till

Sam Malriat from Rodale

No-Till sequesters carbon in the soil, but simply never tilling does not improve the soil. Chemical no-till uses lots of herbicide. Don’t be obsessive about no-till. Shallow tillage can be a responsible choice, as incorporation of organic matter is valuable. Adding cover crops, compost or manure, grazing, and a good crop rotation, can increase the OM, and thus increase the soil water capacity enormously.

Crimson clover cover crop
Photo by Bridget Aleshire

To overcome the challenges of no-till, you need a very good cover crop stand that will provide a thick mulch when terminated; a competitive cash crop; a way to plant into the residue, and a back-up plan in case one of the requirements doesn’t pan out.

Sowing corn into rolled and crimped hairy vetch does not work well, because corn is a heavy feeder and not very competitive. Better is to undersow the corn at V5 or V6 (stages of vegetative growth) with white clover or crimson clover in September. It’s important to get good seed to soil contact. The clover grows when the corn dies. This is in Rodale Country in PA. If the clover can be left growing until the second year, cabbage can be transplanted into it. His slides showed the success of this system after an unpromising start.

Pumpkins can be direct seeded in crimped and rolled (or mowed) winter rye. There is a lot of difference in thickness of the mulch between rye sown in August and October.

Organic Solutions: Pest Management

Drew Smith and Emily Gantz from Rodale

There was a big drop in pesticide use in the mid 1990’s as GMO crops came in. But then a big uptick as resistance to the GMO crops developed. Currently, almost all non-Organic seeds contain neo-nicotinoids, even though they provide no economic benefits.

Crop rotation is the single most important thing you can do to manage pests. Drew showed us the IPM triangle, and we worked our way up. To succeed in preventing pest infestations, planning of all aspects of growing the crop is vital. As is regular scouting of each crop. Cultural controls include the physical aspects of the planting. Other physical controls include mechanical aspects of growing the crop. Biological controls include encourage beneficials, releasing biological agents. Greater biodiversity provides greater stability. See Cornell Entomology https://biocontrol.entomolgy.cornell.edu/index.php

Native Pollinators: Identification, Habitat Needs and Resources

Sarah Koenig and Ryan Stauffer from the Audubon Society

A bee pollinating squash.
Photo Pam Dawling

There are 4000 species of bees in the US (20,000 globally). 70% of food crop species rely on honeybee pollination to some extent. Native bees mostly nest in the ground. Don’t kill them by compaction (or weedkillers!). Use native flowers to attract native pollinators.

Using Tarps to Reduce Tillage on Small Vegetable Farms

Ryan Maher, Cornell Small Farms & Bob Tuori, Nook and Cranny Farm

More growers are trying tarping for weed control, killing cover crops, maintaining a good soil temperature, avoiding crusting and compaction, keeping beds dry enough for planting and reducing dependence on single-use plastics. Challenges include the heavy weight, the aggravation of using sand bags, especially in windy places, ponding of rainwater runoff, and the frustration of providing perfect vole habitat.

After 28 days in summer, you gain 200 GDDs. Plant-available soil N increases by 2 or 3 times from the plant residues. How soon does it dissipate after removing the tarp? Tarping for 3 weeks after shallow tilling kills the living weeds, improves crop establishment and reduces weed emergence by up to 83%. Think of tarps as a tillage tool! Do plan for weed management after removing the tarp. Pigweed and amaranth can become worse!

We haven’t tried tarps yet. Early September photo of hay mulched June-planted potatoes.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

Bob Tuori spoke about a SARE trial of tarping in the Northeast. He compared potatoes grown with and without prior tarping, both patches with and without hay mulch after planting. The tarped area needed sandbags every 10-15 ft. The tarp was removed June 4, weeds were counted June 24, then the patches were mulched. (I hope I got that right). I did not write down all the results, but the only-mulch area grew 17.4 lbs per hour of work, and the tarp-only area grew 13 lbs per hour of work. See the SARE report for the details.

Harvesting Techniques for Small- to Mid-Scale Vegetable Farms

Julie Henninger of Good Keeper Farm and Matthew Lowe

We saw good tool and equipment storage, and learned the benefits of growing head lettuce on landscape fabric (no rotten bottom leaves, no weeds). Muir is their favorite lettuce for spring, summer and fall. At $3/head, a 95ft row planted at 9” spacing earns them $1300, if they have a 15% loss.

Beautiful baby lettuce mix in our hoophouse.
Photo Wren Vile

We learned the importance of sharp knives or scissors for cutting baby greens with minimal cell damage and browning. Theirs sells at $12/pound. They grow Salanova, which brings in $1140/bed at each cutting. If they cut whole heads, these bring in $1476 per bed.

For loose carrots, they sow rows in pairs 2” apart, with 6 rows on a 30” bed, using a stale seed bed and flaming. They sell 1000 lbs per week. Julie Henninger emphasized not wasting time by setting the carrots down in piles. Minimize the number of times each crop is touched. They have modified a cement mixer to wash 25-45 lbs at a time.

Training and communication are also very important. New workers must master the task first, before chatting. Minimize distractions. Send crews out with a strong role model each, to keep the crew working at a sustainable pace. If working with a crew with diverse abilities (eg children), provide a clear short task with a beginning and an end, to give a good sense of achievement.

I also attended the Plenary, Why Is Farming So Hard & What Can We Do About It?  on Friday with Brennan Washington, Sarah Mock and Dr Jessica Gordon Nembhard, who were livestreamed and recorded.

I participated in the book swap, setting out some spare handouts I had in exchange for a couple of magazines. I enjoyed the Farm Innovations poster display of tools and techniques to improve production or save resources (or both). I liked that previous years’ posters were available as pages in several ring binders.

In the Trade Show there were 60-odd vendors. I checked in with Nifty Hoops, a company who will deliver a hoophouse and put it up for you in one day, or help you put it up, teaching as you build. We put ours up ourselves, in 2003, and we were inexperienced and slow, and had to work on it in the (hot) afternoons, after spending the mornings farming. At events when I talk about hoophouse growing, I’ve sometimes been asked if there are companies who will erect hoophouses (high tunnels), so it’s good to be able to pass on this contact. Nifty Hoops also sell interesting components such as DC-powered inflation blowers. (734) 845-0079.  They have videos on their Facebook page

I picked up some publications from ATTRA, who have supplied me with great vegetable growing info since before the internet. (We used to call them up and ask for publications to be sent in the mail).

The Mini-Treffler manual harrow

I also was fascinated by the Mini-Treffler, from OrganicMachinery.net, a manual rolling tine harrow for crops in beds.

  • The TINY Treffler is a hand drawn harrow with the working width of 80cm (2 ft 7 in), 100 (3 ft 4 in) and 130cm (4 ft 3 in)
  • Shares the same principle with the big Treffler harrows: in the row harrowing, adjustable tension and the patented tine suspension
  • Each tine follows the contour of the field and the downward pressure remains constant
  • The TINY is effective throughout the growing season in greenhouses or for small enterprises in vegetable production or seed propagation
  • Wheels extendable from one or both sides to straddle a bed

I gathered literature for our garden crew as well as our dairy, orchard and poultry people, and an assortment of free pens, notebooks, stickers.

PASA also had a virtual conference, spread out over a couple of weeks in January. I’m sure there was great information there too, but our rural internet is not up to the task of virtual conferencing, so I’m in the dark. Pasa intends to keep a virtual conference next year as part of the mix – it works better for farmers who cannot easily leave the farm, it reduces the carbon footprint of travel, and saves on travel and hotel or BnB costs. Maybe next year I’ll have better internet. Maybe Covid will have receded. This year’s conference was great! I look forward to next year’s!

 

Growing flowers to attract aphid predators in early spring

Borage flowering in our hoophouse in January, among the lettuces. Photo Pam Dawling

Last July, when sheltering indoors from the heat, planning next winter and spring’s hoophouse crops, I researched and wrote up Controlling Aphids in Early Spring

I also have a post (another July information-gathering project!) about Insectary Flowers to Attract Beneficial Insects outdoors and in, at various times of year. At the end of April we sow several plug flats of different flowers to plant out in Insectary Circles at the ends of our outdoor raised beds. We hope to find a similar approach that will work earlier in the year for hoophouse and greenhouse aphids.

Ladybugs of Maine
Poster from the Lost Ladybug Project

Aphid predatory insects such as ladybugs, lacewings, aphid  parasites, damsel bugs, braconid wasps, rove beetles, syrphid flies, and spined soldier beetles are attracted to plants with small flat open flowers, like alyssum, dill, yarrow, buckwheat, sunflowers, and cosmos. This is a rather loose and general statement. On a big scale this is known as Farmscaping, and you can read about it in a publication from ATTRA; Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control . You can use this publication to make a specific plan to tackle particular pests. Ladybugs are a good general help because they eat the eggs of many different pest species. Organic Integrated Pest Management from ATTRA gives wider information about managing pests organically.

 

Ladybugs of South Dakota
Lost Ladybug Project

eOrganic has many articles on Insect Management in Organic Farming Systems, that explain ways to tackle pest problems with ecologically-based practices, starting with actions chosen to reduce the chances of the pest ever getting a grip on your crops.

Aphids can get out of control in early spring in our greenhouse and hoophouse, as they become active before their native predators, such as ladybugs, emerge from hibernation. We have a particular problem in our hoophouse and in our greenhouse on the eggplant, pepper and tomato transplants from mid-April to mid- to late-May depending when we manage to get them under control. We are implementing our plan that we made in the summer.

Insectary flowers against aphids

Meanwhile in January we got bad aphids on the lettuce and, of our flowers to attract beneficials, borage was the only one flowering. It was not enough. We did three sprays of soapy water at 5 day intervals to kill the aphids.

Pepper plant with aphids. Photo Pam Dawling

There are many kinds of aphids. The lifecycle of aphids starts in spring with eggs hatching into wingless females that give birth via parthenogenesis to more females. Within a week, one female can produce 100 clones, which can repeat the process at the age of one week.  This continues until adverse weather or predators trigger production of a generation of winged female aphids that moves to new plants. Later in summer male aphids are born and females lay fertilized eggs that overwinter on host plants, to hatch the following spring.

This week, I want to give a progress report on the flowers we are growing. The chart gives details of the ones we chose, where we found the seed, and which months we decided to plant them in.

September-sown Borage flowering in our hoophouse in January. Photo Pam Dawling

The first planting, in September, was of borage and shungiku (Chrysanthemum greens) only. We hoped these would give us early flowers to start the program. Those plants became big enough to transplant in the ground and in 8” (20 cm) pots. We thought having some in large pots would enable us to move them to the trouble spots.

September-sown shungiku (chrysanthemum greens) in January.
Photo Pam Dawling

What I have noticed is that plants in pots dry out very quickly in both the hoophouse and greenhouse! The shungiku have looked close to flowering several times, and the accidentally dry conditions should have helped them to panic and bloom, but they haven’t. The borage flowered with pompom-like clusters, much more compact than spring outdoor borage does.

October-sown Meadowfoam plants in our hoophouse in January. Photo Pam Dawling

The second planting, in late October, consisted of Meadowfoam, Tidy Tips, Phacelia and Yarrow. Those plants are still small, as I write this at the beginning of February.

October-sown Phacelia in January. Photo Pam Dawling

They have been potted up from cells to 4” (10 cm) pots, and some are ready for bigger pots. No flowers, no help against January lettuce aphids.

October-sown Tidy Tips(and more phacelia) in our hoophouse in January.
Photo Pam Dawling

The third sowing has just happened, on February 1, and includes borage, shungiku, Meadowfoam, Phacelia, Tidy Tips and yarrow. I forgot to sow alyssum, so that will be a little later.

Slow-growing October-sown yarrow plants in January, using space in the path between lettuce beds. Photo Pam Dawling

The September-sown borage and shungiku both had some troubles with cold temperatures during January. We had a mild December, then a January with three non-consecutive nights at 10F (-12C). In our double-poly hoophouse, we roll out rowcover at night if it threatens to be 8F (-13C) or lower outdoors. That was about 6 times so far, but 10F (-12C) has been our coldest. Some of each of the borage and shungiku got cold-damaged, and some got rowcover-damaged (hasty pulling!)

So far, no beneficials have been seen on the borage flowers, and no aphids have been killed as a result. We’re still hopeful, especially about reducing aphid numbers on the peppers. More progress reports to come!

Flowers Against Aphids! Photo Pam Dawling

 

 

Workhorse Crops for February

 

White Russian kale in our hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

This is my monthly series of 14 Workhorse Crops (asparagus, beans, cabbage, carrots, chard, collards/kale, garlic, potatoes, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, winter squash, zucchini/summer squash). These crops are reliable and productive under a range of conditions. You can use the search box to find previous month’s entries, such as January.

At last the daylight is getting noticeably longer, although we still have very cold weather. We reach 10 hours of daylight on January 21, and 11 hours on February 20. In our hoophouse we are clearing crops before they bolt, and planting some quick crops before the warm weather ones go in in March and April. In the greenhouse we are starting seedlings and clearing lettuce that is thinking about bolting. Our seed orders are arriving and we are finishing up our various planting schedules and crop maps.

Workhorse Crops to Plant in February

Young carrots after their first thinning.
Photo credit Kathryn Simmons

Carrots

We sow carrots in mid-February, and again at the end of February. Yes, they take a long time to emerge when the soil is still so cold. But it’s a task we can get done now, and won’t have to do later, when we are busier. Carrots take 50 days to emerge at 41˚F (5˚C), (although of course it will have warmed up some before 50 days pass!); 17 days at 50˚F(10˚C); 10 days at 59˚F (15˚C); 7 days at 68˚F (20˚C); 6 at 77˚F (25˚C); 5 at 86˚F (30˚C) and don’t try hotter than that!

An EarthWay seeder, widely used for sowing small seeds like carrots.

We use an EarthWay seeder and the Light Carrot plate (although that still puts out lots of seed!) We can’t really justify the cost of a precision seeder like the Jang, for the amount we’d use it.

Asparagus

If you are planning to start a new asparagus patch, early spring is the best time to plant. This will give them as much time as possible that first year, to grow strong roots. The usual suggestion is to plant at least 10 crowns per diner.

Most growers purchase two-year-old crowns, although it is possible to grow your own asparagus from seed, if you can find seed of your preferred variety. The old OP varieties are still available, but newer all-male hybrids yield far more heavily, often more than twice as much. We chose Jersey Giant, a male hybrid resistant to asparagus rust and well-adapted to the mid-Atlantic. It produces big, tender, succulent spears each spring.

The best soil temperature for planting asparagus is 50°F (10°C) –  planting in cold soil encourages disease and offers no advantage. Remove shipped asparagus roots from the box as soon as they arrive, and untie the bundles. Don’t water them. If you need to store the roots longer than two weeks, spread them in trays or crates, in a cool, fairly dry place, until planting conditions are right. You can read more about growing asparagus in Sustainable Market Farming, and my recent article in Growing for Market magazine.

Asparagus photo by Kathryn Simmons
Indoor sowings for later transplanting outside or in the hoophouse

In our greenhouse we have started a couple of flats of fast-maturing cabbage. We like Farao (60d) and Early Jersey Wakefield (63d). Both numbers are seed to harvest. Subtract 20 days if counting from transplanting to maturity.

Open flats of cabbage seedlings. The nearer flat is a 3″ deep seed flat with four rows of seedlings.
Photo Pam Dawling

We have already sown our kale and collards for outdoor spring crops, in our hoophouse. Here’s the info on that: On January 24 we sow Vates kale and Morris Heading collards in the ground in the hoophouse, in the space recently freed up by the Chinese cabbage. For 1080ft outdoors, we need 108ft of seedling rows. We can fit 14 rows of seedlings across a 4ft (1.2 m) bed. We will transplant these outdoors as bare root transplants in mid-March.

Vates kale seedlings for bare-root transplanting.
Photo Pam Dawling

We don’t sow our chard and leaf beet until 3/24, because we want them for summer greens, after the kale, collards, broccoli and Asian greens have all bolted. But you can start them earlier, if you want earlier harvests. I’ll say more next month about chard, but if you want to get a start sooner, know that the seed will germinate from 41°F (5°C) to 95°F (35°C), and the best temperature is 86°F (30°C), when it needs only 4 days to pop up.

Hoophouse workhorse crops to plant in February

We do sow a few hoophouse greens successions during February, a row of snap peas, some lettuce mix, but nothing that qualifies as a Workhorse.

Workhorse Crops to Harvest in February

Russian kale, yukina Savoy and lettuce from our hoophouse.
Photo Wren Vile

Collards and Kale can be lightly harvested outdoors here in February. About once per bed during each of the coldest months, January and February. We’ll be able to harvest those beds once a week each in March. Our mnemonic for sustainable harvesting of leafy greens is “8 for later”, meaning we leave at least eight inner leaves when harvesting the outer ones, to ensure the plants have enough strength to regrow.

Overwintered Carrots and Cabbage are a possibility some years, but not this one! I actually prefer to get all our carrots safely harvested and stored, rather than have them still in the ground, where more things can go wrong! We have had 3 nights in January down to 10°F (-12°C), and I don’t think even Deadon cabbage would survive that many cold nights! Some of our Tadorna leeks are looking quite damaged. We don’t usually have that problem.

Hoophouse Workhorse Harvests in February

Bulls blood beet greens, chard, and some greens not in our Workhorse group, (turnip greens, Yukina Savoy, spinach) are still going strong. Our experimental carrots are still doing OK, although I’m not a fan of giving them hoophouse space for such a long time with no harvests. I notice I’m slipping into mentioning non-workhorses more often now the winter is biting us.

Red Russian kale in our hoophouse
Photo Pam Dawling

At last we can start harvesting our Russian kales in the hoophouse. We were late getting them established last fall, and growth has been slow. Now many of the other greens (Tokyo bekana, Napa cabbage, pak choy, the first tatsoi and the first mizuna) have all been eaten, we are very ready for the kale. Russian kale wilts easily and is best harvested into buckets as if a bouquet of flowers, with a little water in the bucket.

Workhorse Crops from storage in February

From storage in February we can eat carrots, garlic, potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash. Also frozen summer goodies, and pickled things, sauerkraut, pickled beans, and canned goods like salsa.

Workhorse Crops Special Topics for February: Phenology

Chickweed flowers.
http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/S/W-CP-SMED-FL.006.html
Photo by Jack Kelly Clark.

I wrote about seed germination temperatures and phenology signs in April 2021. I have an earlier post about phenology here, and one about Harbinger Weeds of Spring.

Certain natural phenomena are related to the accumulated warmth of the season (rather than, say, the day-length), and by paying attention to nature’s calendar you will be in sync with actual conditions, which vary from year to year, and are changing over a longer time-scale.

You can learn when to plant by natural signs. For instance, we sow sweet corn when white oak leaves are the size of a squirrel’s ear. I got excited one weekend (April 10) when I saw wind-driven twigs on the ground with oak leaves definitely bigger than squirrels’ ears. But they were Red Oak, not White Oak.

Keeping your own phenology record is a useful guide to when to plant certain crops, and a way to track how fast the season is progressing right where you are. Phenology involves recording when certain wild and cultivated flowers bloom, seedlings emerge, or various insects are first seen. These natural events can substitute for Growing Degree Day calculations. Your phenology record will help build resilience in the face of climate change. Ours might be interesting to you, but unless you live in central Virginia, you can’t use our dates. You do need to make your own. This can be a great home-schooling project, or a crew I-Spy competition, or a calming end-of-day walk around your gardens.

Phenology Record

Dealing with winter weather in your hoophouse

December lettuce in our hoophouse after snowfall. Photo Pam Dawling

Dealing with winter weather in your hoophouse

We’ve just had Winter Storm Frida bring us a foot of heavy wet snow and, along with most of Virginia, several days without electricity. Six days in our case. Much longer, colder and snowier than I expected. I know, climate chaos makes predictions and expectations chancy! We are in zone 7a, with an average annual minimum temperature of 0-5°F (-18°C to -15°C) until recently.

In November 2018, I wrote a post for Mother Earth News entitled Dealing with Snow on your Hoophouse.

When the power goes out, close the air intake

Hoophouse air intake with a very useful flap to reduce or close the opening. Photo Kathryn Simmons

The first thing an operator of a double layer hoophouse should do when the power goes out (especially in winter) is to rush out and close the air intake. Without electricity to run the little blower, the air intake hole becomes an air outflow. Closing the flap on the blower stops the air escaping. In summer you might not mind, but in winter, the air between the layers of plastic maintains about 8F/5C warmer at night inside than outside, and plants can survive 14F/8C colder than they can outside, without extra rowcover; at least 21F/12C colder than outside with thick rowcover.

The “air bubble” also gives strength to the structure in withstanding loads caused by high winds or heavy snow. Soon after the power cut out on Monday morning, I set out towards the hoophouse. Then I remembered that when we changed the end wall plastic in the fall, we did not fit a cover flap. Worse yet, the air tubing projected out of the wall, making a hasty retrofitting impossible. I briefly considered “putting a sock in it” literally, but then pictured what would happen when the power came back on and sucked the sock into the motor, overheating it and starting a blaze. So, learn from our mistake – always fit a flap over the air intake!

Rolls of rowcover in our hoophouse ready to pull over the beds on very cold nights. Photo Wren Vile

We keep rolls of thick Typar rowcover at the ready and cover the individual beds if we expect the outdoor air temperature to be 8°F (-13°C) or lower. Otherwise we don’t use any inner rowcovers in our hoophouse. Without the insulating effect of the air bubble during the power outage, we decided to use the rowcovers when the outdoor temperature was going to be less than 16°F (-9°C). Several nights like that!

Perhaps this will be your first hoophouse winter. Some others will be remembering last winter, and hoping to find a better way of dealing with snow. Snow can be heavy stuff, so removing it is worthwhile. This can be done from the outside, pulling the snow down to ground level, and from the inside, bouncing the snow off the plastic. It isn’t necessary to remove all the snow. Once you have removed what you can, the daytime temperature inside the hoophouse will rise and help melt the rest of the snow. We have never needed to get out of bed in the night to tackle snow, but you might.

The Snobrum tool we use on the outside of our hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

First we tackle the outside, or if snow is still falling or it’s frozen onto the plastic, we start with the inside. Either way, start with the south side, to get as much advantage from solar gain as possible. The important rule of snow removal is “First, do no harm.” Don’t make holes in the plastic in your efforts to remove snow! A hoophouse is most stable when the snow is evenly distributed. Since houses are stronger at the ends where they have end walls for support, it makes sense to start at the weaker middle and work in both directions if removing heavy snow.

Hoophouse snow scraping tool on a telescoping painter’s pole. (No snow in sight!) Photo Pam Dawling

For outside we use a tool (SnoBrūm™) which is sold for scraping snow off cars. It’s a foam board about 6″ × 18″ (15 × 45 cm) with a threaded insert that takes a telescoping pole. It is sold with a short pole, but a painter’s pole will give a much longer reach. If you haven’t yet got one of these handy tools, carefully use the back of a rake (wrapped in thick cloth). Pull the snow down between the bows, avoiding pulling the tool over the framework as much as possible, as that can easily make holes. Alternate with shoveling the snow away from the base of the hoophouse if the snow is deep (piles of snow pressing against the lower walls can do damage). Be careful not to hit the plastic with any metal tools. Don’t attempt to use the relatively fragile foam-board tool for pushing snow along the ground; keep it free of grit and use it only on the plastic.

Removing snow from a hoophouse at Dripping Springs Garden. Photo Mark Cain

Inside, don a visor (to keep blobs of icy water from landing on your face) and grab an old broom with its head covered in a cloth or bubble plastic, taped on. Make sure there are no sharp protrusions from the broom head. First walk along the paths nearest the walls banging the broom against the plastic. We find a double bouncing action works best, and we can get in a rhythm. This can be a long and tiring job! Start at waist height because if the lower snow falls down, sometimes the higher stuff will follow it down, saving you work. When you need to reach higher, tie or tape the broom to a longer stick. Or find something that screws onto your painter’s pole, such as a paint roller (!) and cover that with bubble plastic. Balance applying your energy with being gentle with the plastic. Do not use the foam-board scraper for bouncing snow — it will crack.

When you’re tired and no more snow is easy to move, wait and try again later. The warming effect of incoming daylight will help melt the snow next to the plastic, so that it is easier to start it sliding off next time you do the rounds.

Sometimes ice accumulates on the plastic. If you get freezing rain that sticks on the plastic, it creates a rough surface that keeps any snow that settles on top from sliding off until the ice thaws. The best way to remove ice is to melt it using warmth from inside. If you have double plastic and it is not windy, switch off the inflation blower — the heat from inside will reach the ice sooner. I recommend against breaking the ice free mechanically, as there is a big risk of the sharp edges of the ice cutting the plastic. You also risk abrasion every time you use a device on the outside of the plastic to pull snow or ice off the tunnel. This makes the plastic rough, and snow won’t slide off as well in the future.

Prevent Hoophouse Frame Collapse

Snow comes in various consistencies and weights. A foot (30 cm) of light fluffy snow may only contain as much water as 1″ (2.5 cm) of rain. But heavy wet snow can equal 1″ (2.5 cm) of rain in only 3″–4″ (8–10 cm) of snow. Each inch (2.5 cm) of rainwater-equivalent will load a structure with 5.2 lbs/ft2 (25 kg/m2). This is about 6.5 tons (5.9 metric tons) on a 25′ × 96′ (7.6 × 29.2 m) hoophouse! Uneven snow loads make a frame more likely to collapse because there are points of higher pressure. This happens if snow is thicker on one side of the hoophouse or if adjacent hoophouses are too close and snow piles up between them when it slides off the roof. The weight of snow can buckle the side of the frame.

Some growers have wood posts ready to wedge under the trusses for extra strength. It sounds like a good plan. Our hoophouse doesn’t have any crosswise trusses, just lengthwise purlins. It’s still standing after 18 years.

When heavy snow is predicted, turn a heater on a couple hours before the storm begins, with the thermostat at 70°F (21°C) or higher. The cost of the fuel is less than a new hoophouse. A portable propane heater (non-electric!) is a good thing to have on hand for unheated tunnels or if a furnace fails or if the power goes out. If you have a very heavy snowfall and it is not possible to remove the snow, then cut the plastic and let the snow fall into the hoophouse to relieve the pressure and save the frame.

“If this, do that”

We have an “If this, do that” card at the front of our hoophouse log book, to help with decisions. It divides snow events into three types.

  1. If the night temperature will be higher than 25°F (−4°C) and you expect less than 6″ (15 cm) of wet snow, leave the inflation blower on, go to bed and hope the snow will slide off.
  2. If the night temperature will be lower than 25°F (−4°C), or there will be more than 6″ (15 cm) of snow and no wind, turn off the blower until the morning, letting the interior heat do its best to melt the snow. If it’s going to be extremely cold, you’ll have to balance this with your need to keep your crops alive.
  3. If there is hard sleet or freezing rain, cycle the inflation off for three hours, on for three hours, with the goal of letting the interior heat melt some of the accumulation, and then using the inflation to push the slush off (give it some help in the morning). Repeat this cycle as needed.

Two great resources are Vern Grubinger, University of Vermont Extension, Prevent Greenhouse Collapse and the Rimol Greenhouses Blog How to Reduce Storm Damage to Your Greenhouse and High Tunnel.

In November 2020 I wrote Winter Preparations for Vegetable Gardens

Winter-Kill Temperatures

My annual blogpost of Winter-Kill Temperatures for Cold-Hardy Vegetables is always very popular. Usually searches for this info increase in October and peak in early November, when growers are deciding when to harvest each crop as the cold increases. In mid-winter you might consult the table to determine which crops to prioritize for extra rowcover if a bad thing happens.

I have learned that there is more damage when the weather switches suddenly from warm to cold. And that the forecaster in Raleigh, NC says it needs 3 hours at the critical temperature to do damage. Also note that repeated cold temperatures can kill off crops that can survive a single dip to a low temperature, and that cold winds, or cold wet weather can destroy plants quicker than simple cold.

Workhorse Crops for January

Our hoophouse with a December snowfall. Pam Dawling

We’re solidly in the darker and colder half the year for our monthly series of 14 Workhorse Crops (asparagus, beans, cabbage, carrots, chard, collards/kale, garlic, potatoes, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, winter squash, zucchini/summer squash). These crops are reliable and productive under a range of conditions. You can use the search box to find previous month’s entries, such as December.

Winter is a natural opportunity to reconsider the size of your garden, which crops to grow, and your growing methods. Perhaps this will be your first gardening year? If so, welcome! Use the search box to find specific info, or click the blog category to find some further reading. Hopefully, we all have our garden plans made and our seeds ordered. Maybe we are already looking at a planting schedule.

Workhorse Crops to Plant in January

Potato Onions

Yellow Potato Onions.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

In January, we can plant small small potato onions outdoors.  We prepare the bed in the late fall and mulch it with hay, to plant in January. We rake off the mulch, plant the onion bulbs and then lay the mulch back on the bed, to control weeds and somewhat to insulate the little onion bulbs. These smallest potato onions are very cold-hardy, and will grow up to produce a single 3” (7.5 cm) large onion. A few will grow and subdivide to produce more small onions. Click the link to read the details.

Indoor sowings for later transplanting outside or in the hoophouse

In our greenhouse we fire up our germinator cabinets and sow our first lettuce and early cabbage (Early Jersey Wakefield and Faroa) and scallions in mid-January. The following week we sow our tomatoes to plant out in the hoophouse, and at the end of the month, spinach if we have not got enough sown in our hoophouse to transplant as bare-root transplants.

Flats of cabbage seedlings in our greenhouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

Hoophouse workhorse crops to plant in January

In the hoophouse we are sowing a second or third round of crops, mostly successions of greens and radishes. We have already pulled our first and second radishes, and some of the Asian greens.

This March we will be using a half-bed in the hoophouse for some early green bush beans. Like our other warm weather crops, these can be planted in the hoophouse a month earlier than outdoors. Two cautions with green beans in the hoophouse: buy a very upright variety, as the plants will be more sprawling than they are outdoors. Outdoors we grow Provider and Bush Blue Lake (both very reliable and productive), and in the hoophouse we like Strike. The second bean caution is that we have found the edge beds too cold for beans when we need to sow them, in March. Don’t plant them now, but order seeds of an upright variety and plan a non-edge bed. I’ll say more in March.

We have also planned our next round of early warm-weather crops, which we will transplant in late March and early April. Tomatoes and zucchini/summer squash are on our Workhorse list

Young spinach seedlings.
Photo Pam Dawling

We stop filling gaps in most of the Asian greens at the end of December, because they will start to bolt in January and/or because they are mature and we will be clearing the space to sow something else. Tatsoi, Tokyo Bekana, Pac Choi, Chinese Cabbage, Yukina Savoy, all need to be eaten during January.  We sow spinach (the Racehorse Crop) in mid-January, to transplant in the hoophouse and outdoors.

Vates kale seedlings for bare-root transplanting.
Photo Pam Dawling

On January 24 we sow Vates kale and Morris Heading collards in the ground in the hoophouse, in the space recently freed up by the Chinese cabbage. For 1080ft outdoors, we need 108ft of seedling rows. We can fit 14 rows of seedlings across a 4ft (1.2 m) bed.

See November’s information on Follow-On Crops, and Filler Greens (short rows of greens sown in October to fill unexpected spaces).

Workhorse Crops to Harvest in January

We still have workhorse crops to harvest outdoors: chard, kale and collards, and perhaps cabbages. We’re down to three of our 14 workhorse crops to harvest outdoors in January, but we have the Racehorse Crop, spinach, too, and also luscious hoophouse greens.

Deadon (105d winter cabbage) is extremely cold hardy – we leave it outdoors until nights threaten to hit 10°F (-12°C), the lowest temperature I’ve seen it survive. We just had one night at that temperature, much colder than anything else so far this winter.

Chard can still be harvested outdoors if we covered it with hoops and rowcover. The outdoor killing temperature for unprotected Bright Lights chard is 22°F (–6°C); red chard survives down to 15°F (–9.5°C) and green chard to 10°F (–12°C). We have succeeded in keeping chard alive outdoors right through the winter, if we cover it.

Collards and Kale can be lightly harvested in January. Our mnemonic for sustainable harvesting of leafy greens is “8 for later”, meaning we leave at least eight inner leaves when harvesting the outer ones, to ensure the plants have enough strength to regrow. In October, November, February and March, we can harvest leaves from these plants once a week. In December and January, once each month is more like what we can hope for. Chard and senposai do OK with only 6 leaves left.

Hoophouse Workhorse harvests in January

We are harvesting leaves from our hoophouse Bright Lights chard at an adolescent size, cutting them into ribbons, and chopping the colorful stems, for salad mixes. Later, when the days lengthen, we’ll be able to harvest leaves for cooking.

Red Russian kale in our hoophouse
Photo Pam Dawling

The Red Russian and White Russian kales are ready to harvest now (we were a bit late with getting a successful sowing in September). Russian kales belong to the napus group of kales, which are better able to make growth in low light levels than oleracea types like the Vates we grow outdoors. Vates is our star outdoors, because it is more cold-hardy than any other kale I’ve found. The Russian kales have a tendency to wilt after harvesting, so we move fast and stand the leaves up in the buckets. We add some water to the buckets before rushing them to the walk-in cooler. (We do this with chard, turnip greens and Tokyo bekana too.)

The hoophouse senposai is on its third round of harvests, just two weeks after the second, which was one week after the first. This clearly demonstrated the slower rate of growth as temperatures and daylight decrease. The short days do cause plant growth to slow down, but this is not the only factor. Soil temperature is another. In our hoophouse, the soil temperature is still 50F (10C) in early January.

But hey! The length of daylight is now increasing! On the shortest day, December 21, we have 9 hours and 34 minutes of daylight, from 7.21 am to 4.55 pm. The mornings continue to get darker by a few minutes, taking a month to get back to 7.21, from a latest of 7.25 am. Meanwhile the evenings are getting lighter, gaining us 6 minutes by January 5. I’m typing this on my laptop onto a USB stick, as we are in day 3 of a power outage. I appreciate the lighter evenings! By January 21 we will be up to 10 hours of daylight!

Workhorse Crops from storage in January

Storage crops come into their own in December and January, once outdoor growth has slowed down. The flavor of stored sweet potatoes reaches its peak in late January! Besides the Workhorse Crops of carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash and garlic, there are many other root crops. See my posts Root Crops for the Month. Use hardneck garlic first, as it stores for only for 4-6 months. Softneck garlic can store for up to 7 months.

Eat up your acorn and other pepo types of winter squash, as they store for only 1-4 months. Maximas such as Cha Cha, Jarrahdale and Kabochas store for 3-5 months; Moschatas such as Butternuts and Cheese pumpkins will store for 8 months or even more. Seminole pumpkin can easily store for a whole year at room temperature. They do have hard shells and need a hefty cleaver to cut them open.

Our white potatoes are keeping well in the root cellar down at 40F-50F (5C-10C). We air it about once a week. We open the door on mild nights or chilly overcast days, depending what we get and what we need. Potatoes in storage after their first month are no longer respiring much at all. They should be dormant, and not in need of many air changes.

Sweet potatoes on a plate.
Photo Brittany Lewis

Our sweet potatoes are very delicious. We are eating about 40-50lbs (19-23 kilos) a week.

Stored cabbage can also be a boon, and this is also a good time to explore all the pickles and canned and frozen produce you put up earlier.

Workhorse Crops Special Topics for January: Making Schedules.

Screenshot Crop Planning Cycle

We continue our Garden Planning, ordering seeds and planning schedules of field planting and greenhouse seedling starting. In January we start sowing seeds indoors, and need our schedule figured out for that. We also need to pay attention to germination temps for various crops, so that we get them off to a good start, matched with crops needing similar temperatures in each germination cabinet.

Using all the space in the winter hoophouse

Mid-October photo of September-sown tatsoi and August-sown Tokyo bekana. Fast-growing crops make good use of small windows of time throughout the year.
Photo Pam Dawling

Quick crops to fill hoophouse space Oct 1-Nov 29

This fall we had unused space in a bed where we planted Oct 1 radishes and Tokyo bekana (transplanted), Oct 2 brassica salad mix and Chinese cabbage and Oct 3 pak choy. On Oct 4 we had planted only 44ft, half the bed.

On Oct 10 we made a tiny 1.5ft sowing of brassica gap-filler plants. Oct 20 and 23 we did a bit more planting: scallions, radishes and more filler greens and lettuces (12.5ft), leaving 30ft still empty after Oct 23.

The next plantings were more fillers on Nov 9 (5ft), tatsoi on Nov 15 (7ft), radishes on Nov 29 (2ft), total 14ft more, leaving 16ft still empty. Then came lettuce mix on Dec 7 (12ft), leaving 4ft for brassica salad mix #2 on 12/18. Weeks of bare soil – ugh!

Then we start clearing the first round of crops (clearing radish #2 for Dec 8 brassica salad mix #1.5, 2ft) and Dec 18, clearing 4ft of radish #2.5 south side only,  for more brassica salad mix #2, Dec 23 (clearing brassica salad mix #1 for radish #5, 4ft).

If we have a similar crop arrangement next winter, or small empty patches in various beds, what can we plant in space that is still empty after Oct 10, and especially the spaces that don’t get planted until mid-November onwards? We could try different crops, for the various crops that follow.

Qualities of possible crops:

  • Ready to eat 19-83 days from sowing or transplanting. Most spaces 30-60 days.
  • Cold weather crops, not warm weather crops
  • Something we’ll want to eat then, that we don’t already have lots of.
  • Or something that could be processed for later (we generally have enough greens in winter)
  • Maybe not spinach, as it’s a challenge with pests in the fall.
  • (Preferably not brassicas as we grow so many and stretch the crop rotation.)

Ready to eat 21-60 days from sowing

In order of earliness:

Pea shoots make a delightful salad ingredient.
Photo Pam Dawling

Tips (based on Johnny’s Key Growing Info):

  • Grow when the weather is warm 65°F (18°C). Hmmm?
  • Soak seeds for 8 hours (do not re-use water).
  • Sow seeds thickly and lightly press seeds into soil. Shade?
  • Keep moist.
  • Shoots should be at an edible size (3–6″) within 7–21 days.
  • HARVEST: Using a sharp harvest knife or scissors, cut the shoots just above the soil line. Place in plastic bags or sealed containers and refrigerate. [Could use up leftover pea seed that won’t be any good next spring]
Our outdoor Eat-All greens in October. Photo Bridget Aleshire

Eat-All Greens (35 days from sowing). Invented by Carol Deppe, as a method of growing cooking greens quickly with little work, direct sown and cut at 12″ tall, leaving the tough-stemmed lower 3”, perhaps for a second cut, or to return to the soil. She recommends 7 greens in particular: Green Wave mustard, Shunkyo and Sensai radishes, Groninger Blue collard-kale, Burgundy amaranth, Tokyo bekana, and Red Aztec huazontle. We tried this outdoors one fall, and I wrote 3 blog posts about it. The crops that did best for us were fava beans, peas, radish greens, Maruba Santoh and Tokyo bekana, frills, turnip greens, Siberian kales. The ones that didn’t work outdoors were kohlrabi, beets, and chard. (We sowed old seeds we had, didn’t buy the recommended ones)

  • Earlier turnips (45d)
  • Beets and their greens (easier than spinach and a double crop) (50-60d)

Ready to eat 30-60 d from transplanting

(in order of earliness):

 

  • Earlier Senposai – but we have outdoor senposai to harvest in Oct and Nov (40d from emergence after sowing; 20 days from transplant)
  • Komatsuna (45 days from emergence after sowing; 25 days from transplant)
  • Kohlrabi (45-60d from 25-40d from transplants)
  • Earlier Napa cabbage (Blues) (52 days from emergence after sowing; 32 days from transplant).
  • Fedco Red Dragon Chinese cabbage (60 days from emergence after sowing; 40 days from transplant)
  • Small early cabbage like Farao, Golden Acre and EJW are all about 62 days from emergence after sowing; 42 days from transplant
  • Broccoli Tendergreen is 67 days from emergence after sowing; 47 days from transplant

Ready to eat 90 days from planting

Garlic scallions outdoors in late March. Think what might work in a hoophouse! Photo Pam Dawling
  • Garlic scallions. We normally plant these in early November and eat in early March (120 days). But if we plant them earlier, in a warmer place, they’ll be ready sooner. Normally you don’t want to plant garlic until the soil cools to 50F (10C), because it would grow too fast and not survive the winter. But if it’s just the scallions you want, the rules change. . .

Clif Slade, who farms in a slightly warmer climate zone in Surry, Virginia, tells me they plant garlic for scallions outdoors in every month except August, and in the hoophouse until January (from September?). December plantings are ready indoors in March, outdoors in April. He generally reckons 90 days from planting to harvest, in warm conditions. Any garlic is suitable. Hardneck, softneck, small cloves, large cloves, whole small bulbs. Best return is on small garlic, although bulbs with lots of small cloves can be tiresome to pull apart!

When to sow crops to transplant?

And how would this fit into our schedule?

  • We’d need to sow 3-4 weeks before a transplant date of Oct 1, thst’s Sept 1-7.
  • We could sow Sept 15 with our first round of hoophouse transplants. Transplant Oct 7-15 approx
  • Start the hoophouse nursery bed two weeks earlier?
  • Or sow in the lettuce nursery seedbed which is already in use in early September?
Bull’s Blood beet greens are the most beautiful addition for salads or can be cooked.
Photo Pam Dawling

It looks like we might have 30ft total available for fast crops. Here’s what fits:

  1. Oct 1-Oct 20, 12.5ft. 19 days. Pea shoots, small transplanted senposai.
  2. Oct 1-Nov 9, 5ft. 39 days. Eat-All Greens, transplanted senposai, komatsuna, or kohlrabi, or pea shoots. Maybe garlic scallions.
  3. Oct 1-Nov 15, 7 ft. 45 days. Turnips, transplanted Blues, Red Dragon, small cabbages, or as in B.
  4. Oct 1-Nov 29, 2ft. 59 days. Beets and beet greens, or transplanted Tendergreen broccoli, or as in C.
  5. Oct 1-Dec 7, 12 ft. 67 days. Any of the above
  6. Oct 1-Dec 23, 4 ft. 83 days. Any of the above.

Caution about slow growth

Growing slows down in November and December, so maybe we should be cautious the first time and add 10-14 days to the days to maturity??

Radishes

Cherry Belle radishes in our hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

Some years ago I figured out a sequence of sowing dates that would give us an even radish supply, without gaps or gluts. For various reasons, we drifted away from those dates, and I’d like to get back to them again. Sept 6 is the earliest we can sow in the hoophouse. Jan 25 is the latest date that will give us a worthwhile harvest, starting Jan 27. Skipping that last one would be OK.

#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6
Suggested Sept 6 Sept 30 Oct 27 Nov 23 Dec 20 Jan 25
Sowing interval 24 days 27 days 27 days 27 days 36 days
Harvest start Oct 1 Nov 4 Dec 8 Jan 11 Feb 14 Mar 20
Harvest interval 34 days 34 days 34 days 34 days 34 days

Workhorse Crops for December

Multicolored chard from our hoophouse.
Photo Wren Vile

We’ve entered the colder half the year for this monthly series of 14 Workhorse Crops: asparagus, beans, cabbage, carrots, chard, collards/kale, garlic, potatoes, sweet corn, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, watermelons, winter squash, zucchini/summer squash. These crops are reliable under a wide range of conditions.

I hope this blogpost series will help you become more productive and profitable (if selling) as you go into winter. Maybe you gardened for the first time this year, or expanded production in spring (orders to seed companies suggest many people did!) Maybe you have less time at home than you expected when you started planting in spring. Winter brings a natural opportunity to reconsider the size of your garden, your crops, and your methods.

You can use the search box to find previous month’s entries, such as November.

Workhorse Crops to Plant in December

If you are in a warmer climate than our zone 7a, you may still have the chance to plant garlic.  See Workhorse Crops for November.

Garlic scallions prepared for sale. Typepad.com

Garlic scallions

We could still plant garlic scallions in December. See Garlic Scallions and  October’s Workhorse Crops  post for information about planting garlic scallions (baby garlic plants).

Garlic scallions can be grown at many times of year. This is news to many of us! By planting later it is possible to extend the garlic scallion harvest period out later. It is important to plant them in conditions where they can grow some good roots before getting too cold. Roots can grow whenever the soil is not frozen. Tops grow whenever the air is above 40°F (4.5°C) Planting in a hoophouse in November or December could possibly provide earlier garlic scallions then planting outdoors in early November. Because the plants are growing faster in warmer conditions. I have not tried this myself yet.

Bulb formation and drying down of bulb garlic is controlled by daylength, but because you do not need bulbing and drying down, all sorts of dates are possible!

Yellow potato onions.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Potato Onions

We could plant small and medium-sized potato onions outdoors in December.  We have usually also prepared a bed and mulched it with hay, to plant the small potato onions in January. Click the links to get the details.

Hoophouse workhorse crops to plant in December

In the hoophouse we now have all the space fully planted. We intend to do this by November 20 each year, or earlier. We are starting to plant a second round of crops, mostly successions of greens and radishes. We have already pulled our first radishes (which sound like they are sneaking their way into being classified as a workhorse crop!)

Unusually, this fall, we found ourselves with some open space during October and November. I am pulling together information on fast crops we could grow in future years, before the late November and early December crops.

Once we have our hoophouse fully planted, we replace any crop we harvest, keeping all the space fully used. See November’s information on Follow-On Crops, and Filler Greens (short rows of greens sown in October to fill unexpected spaces.

Vates kale – our winter outdoor favorite.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Workhorse Crops to Harvest in December

We can still have plentiful quantities of workhorse crops to harvest outdoors: cabbage, carrots, chard, kale and collards, and also luscious hoophouse greens. Only four of our 14 workhorse crops can be harvested outdoors in December, but the quantities are good, and we have the Racehorse Crop, spinach, too

We had our first frost of 2021 on November 3 – our latest first frost in the past fifteen years (approximately) has been November 15 2019.

Cabbage We harvest fall-planted cabbage from September 25 until November 30, or perhaps early December in milder years. Deadon (105d winter cabbage) is extremely cold hardy – we leave it outdoors until nights threaten to hit 10°F (-12°C), the lowest temperature I’ve seen it survive.

Carrots can be harvested in December, if we didn’t finish the job in November and we don’t want to risk feeding voles by leaving the carrots in the ground over the winter.

Chard can still be harvested outdoors if we covered it with hoops and rowcover. The outdoor killing temperature for unprotected Bright Lights chard is 22°F (–6°C); red chard survives down to 15°F (–9.5°C) and green chard to 10°F (–12°C). We have succeeded in keeping chard alive outdoors right through the winter, if we cover it. This year, we have abandoned it, as we ate so much chard through the summer and got tired of it! The chard did very well, and we lacked other summer greens like stored spring cabbages, and fall broccoli.

Alabama Blue collards.
Credit Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Collards and Kale can be lightly harvested in December. Our mnemonic for sustainable harvesting of leafy greens is “8 for later”, meaning we leave at least eight inner leaves when harvesting the outer ones, to ensure the plants have enough strength to regrow. Chard and senposai do OK with only 6 leaves left.

Hoophouse chard in December.
Photo Wren Vile

Hoophouse Workhorse harvests in December

We have started harvesting our hoophouse Bright Lights chard in small amounts, cutting the leaves into ribbons, and chopping the colorful stems, for salad mixes.

The Red Russian and White Russian kales are usually ready from early December. This year we suffered from poor germination (old seed!) and the later resows are still too small. We have plenty of other greens to eat, from outdoors, and the hoophouse senposai is on its second round of harvests, just one week after the first.

Workhorse Crops from storage in December

Storage crops start to come into their own in December as outdoor growth slows down. Besides the Workhorse Crops of carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, winter squash and garlic, there are many root crops. See my posts Root Crops for the Month. Use hardneck garlic first, as it stores for only for 4-6 months. Softneck garlic can store for up to 7 months.

Know your winter squash! Use the ones with the shortest storage life first (and any damaged squash that won’t store longer). Acorn and other pepo types of winter squash store for 1-4 months; Maximas such as Cha Cha, Jarrahdale and Kabochas store for 3-5 months; Moschatas such as Butternuts and Cheese pumpkins will store for 8 months or even more. Seminole pumpkin can easily store for a whole year at room temperature.

Our white potatoes were sorted two weeks after the harvest. This one sorting makes a lot of difference to the quality and quantity of potatoes we will be able to eat. After two weeks, very little further rotting starts up. We cool the root cellar down to 50F after the first month, then to 40F, airing once a week (or less if cooling is not needed).

Sweet potatoes stored in off-duty wood seed flats.
Credit Nina Gentle

Our sweet potatoes are fully cured and delicious. We grow 4 kinds: Georgia Jet and Beauregard in roughly equal amounts, to hedge our bets; and two unnamed varieties we call Bill Shane’s White and Jubilee, in small quantities simply to preserve the genetic diversity. Georgia Jet is a bit faster (90 days compared to 100 days) and usually yields a little better for us than Beauregard.  Some New York growers report problems with Georgia Jet due to soft rots and malformed roots. Most growers really like this variety. Beauregard has light rose, red-orange or copper skin, dark orange flesh, uniformly shaped roots. Georgia Jet has a skin that is red-purple. I sometimes find the roots hard to tell apart when we have accidentally mixed them.

Garlic shoots poking through the mulch.
Photo Pam Dawling

Workhorse Crops Special Topics for December

One task for us this month is to Free Trapped Garlic Shoots

14-16 days after planting, when we can see that more than half of the shoots have emerged, we free any garlic shoots trapped under particularly thick clumps of mulch. We investigate the spots where there should be a plant but isn’t. Ours are planted 5” (13 cm) apart. If we find garlic tops, we simply leave part of them exposed to the light. They will sort themselves out. We don’t leave any soil exposed, because we don’t want weeds to grow. This needs to be a fast-moving, efficient task, as there are thousands of plants. It’s also important to be patient and optimistic, and not start this job too early. The goal is to free the shoots that wouldn’t make it out unaided. Not to prematurely expose them all.

In December we continue Planning, including insurance crops. We calculate how much seed to buy, browse the catalogs, balancing trying different varieties on a small scale, and largely sticking to known successful varieties. See my recent post Reading Between the Lines in the Seed Catalogs. We hope to get our seed orders placed before the end of December. Since the Covid pandemic, lots more people have started growing food. This has led to some seed shortages. So if your heart is set on certain crops or certain varieties, order early to avoid disappointment. And to spread out the massive workload that the people working packing and shipping your seeds are dealing with. Appreciate them!