Asian Greens for December: Pak Choy

Pak Choy in the hoophouse in December.
Photo Ethan Hirsh

December and the first three weeks of January are the season we harvest mature pak choy heads in our hoophouse. Pak choy, also known as bok choi, pac choy, and similar names, is a large 12″-15″ (30–38 cm) tall heading green, usually cut as a full head. If you prefer, you can harvest a leaf or two from each plant each time you want to eat some. It is hardy at least down to 32F (0C) outdoors. Some varieties are hardy down to 25F (-4C).

Botanically, pak choy is a Brassica rapa var. chinensis. If you plan to grow seed of more than one Asian green, carefully choose ones that won’t cross. Be aware of the possibility of brassica crops being wrongly classified.

Pak Choy in the hoophouse in early November.
Photo Pam Dawling

Pak Choy generally has thick rounded white stems, dark glossy leaves and a mild flavor. There are varieties with green stems, some with red-purple leaves such as Red Choi from Kitazawa, and some miniature varieties, such as Mei Qing Choi from Kitazawa, but we grow the full-sized white and green kinds, such as Joi Choi from Johnny’s and Prize Choy from Fedco. For the most choice, go to Kitazawa Seeds, as they stock 23 varieties (although 4 are tatois).

Like all Asian greens, pak choy is nutritious as well as tasty. It’s high in carotenoids, vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, magnesium and fiber. It contains antioxidants which fight against cancer and protect eyes from macular degeneration.

Brassica seedbed protected from insects with ProtekNet and hoops.
Photo Bridget Alsehsire

We sow for this planting in an outdoor nursery seedbed on September 15, and cover the outdoor seedbeds with insect netting. The ideal germination temperature range for Pak Choy is 45-70F, it’s very easy-going. Ideal  temperatures for growth are 60-70F. Hoophouses are perfect. The plants grow fast and we only get a few weeds to deal with.Asian greens have similar care requirements to other brassicas, and very fertile soils grow the best Asian greens.

We transplant as bare root transplants into the hoophouse just 3 weeks after sowing, around Oct 3. We plant 10″ apart, with 4 rows in a 4ft wide bed. We reckon on 52 pak choy plants for 100 people. Because the harvest period is short, it is not wise to grow too many.

Young Pak Choy transplants.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Pak choy is shallow rooted, so pay extra attention to providing enough water during hot weather , 1” (2.5 cm) of water per week; 2” (5 cm) during very hot weather. This will prevent bitter flavors and excess pungency.

Do closely monitor for pests, which can cause havoc. We have had trouble in the hoophouse from the vegetable weevil larva. Click the link for information and great photos from Debbie Roos at Growing Small Farms. Other possible pests include flea beetles, aphids, harlequin bugs, cabbage caterpillars, grasshoppers and slugs.

Only about 8 weeks after transplanting, pak choy is ready to harvest. Because we want to keep all our hoophouse space in full use, we pull the plant out, then cut off the root. This is easier than cutting the head off at ground level, then trying to pry out the root.

Young Pak Choy plants in early November, with some darker Yukina Savoy on the right.
Photo Wren Vile

That same day we fill the gaps with some younger transplants (sown 10/10 in the hoophouse), that we have in reserve. We call these “filler greens.” We stop filling gaps with Asian greens (and lettuces) on Jan 25, and follow the pak choy with a sowing of kale to be transplanted outdoors in early March.

There’s a good publication from Iowa State Extension on  Commercial Production of Pak Choi. As an organic grower, I don’t use the herbicides and pesticides they mention, but the publication is good on identifying pests and diseases as well as covering the basic growing needs.

See ATTRA’s Cole Crops and Other Brassicas: Organic Production for more information than I can cover here.

In areas with cool or mild springs, pak choy can be a spring green, but that doesn’t work with our short springs – they just bolt rather than size up. Growing outdoors for fall harvest and in the hoophouse for winter use works best here in central Virginia.

What Makes Potatoes Sprout?

Harvesting potatoes. Photo Lori Katz

“White” or Peruvian potatoes (sometimes called Irish potatoes) are stem tubers in the nightshade family; sweet potatoes are root tubers in the Morning Glory family. This article is about Peruvian potatoes, not sweet potatoes.

Curing potatoes

Potatoes are cured enough for storage when the skins don’t rub off. It’s best to leave the potatoes in the ground for two weeks after the tops die, whether naturally or because of mowing, if you want them to store. When the potatoes are harvested after the skins have toughened, there will be less damage during harvest. Curing allows skins to harden and some of the starches to convert to sugars. These changes help the tubers to store for months.

When potatoes first go into storage, they are still “alive” and respiring, and need fresh air frequently. They will heat up if left closed in, and could develop black centers, where the cells die from lack of oxygen.

Storing newly harvested potatoes

For the first two weeks after harvest, the root cellar or other storage space will need 6-9 hours of ventilation every two or three days. The temperature goal is 60°F–75°F (16°C–24°C), with 95% humidity. Ventilate when the temperature is 0–20F (0–11C) cooler than your goal: in the daytime if nights are too cold and days are mild; at night if nights are mild and days too warm. If it is very damp in there, ventilate more.

Two weeks after harvest, sort all the potatoes. By this time, any which are going to rot have likely started doing so. Restack, remembering to keep airspace between the crates and walls. For weeks 2–4, the temperature goal is 50°F (10°C) and fresh air is needed about once a week.

Potato crates in our root cellar.
Photo Nina Gentle

Long term potato storage

After week 4 in winter, cool to 40°F (5°C); in summer, below 50°F (10°C). Ventilation for air exchange is no longer needed, as the tubers have become dormant. The final long-term storage conditions are cool and fairly moist, 40°F–50°F (5°C–10°C), 85%–90% humidity—a  root cellar is ideal. Below 40°F (5°C) some starches convert to sugars, giving the potatoes a bad flavor and causing them to blacken if fried. Try hard to avoid having the cellar cool down, then warm up. That causes the potatoes to sprout.

Pre-sprouting seed potatoes

Potatoes have a dormant period of 4–8 weeks after harvest before they will sprout. The warmer the conditions after dormancy ends, the quicker they will sprout. If you want potatoes to sprout during the dormant period, trick them by refrigerating for 16 days, then pre-sprouting them in the light.

We routinely “chit” or pre-sprout our seed potatoes before planting. Bring the seed potatoes into a warm, well-lit room around 65°F–70°F (18°C–21°C) and set them upright in shallow boxes, rose end up, stem (belly-button) down, for 2–4 weeks in spring, 1–2 weeks in summer. For summer planting, store your seed potatoes in a cool place at 45°F–50°F (7°C–10°C) until 2 weeks before your planting date, then sprout them.

Seed potato pieces after pre-sprouting for planting.
Photo Kati Falger

The effects of ethylene

Ethylene is a naturally occurring, odorless, colorless gas produced by many fruits and vegetables, but it can also be produced by faulty heating units and combustion engines. Propane heaters should not be used, as propane combustion produces ethylene. Incomplete combustion of organic fuels can result in the production of carbon monoxide, ethylene and other byproducts. Do not use any unvented hydrocarbon fuel heaters near stored produce.

Ethylene is associated with ripening, sprouting and rotting. Some crops produce ethylene in storage—apples, cantaloupes, ripening tomatoes, already-sprouting potatoes all produce higher than average amounts. Chilling, wounding and pathogen attack can all induce ethylene formation in damaged crops.

Some crops, including most cut greens, are not sensitive to ethylene and can be stored in the same space as ethylene-producing crops. Other crops are very sensitive and will deteriorate in a high-ethylene environment. Potatoes will sprout, ripe fruits will go over the top, carrots lose their sweetness and become bitter.

Summary: Potatoes are more likely to sprout if they are more than 4–8 weeks after harvest; in the light; near fruits, vegetables, flowers or malfunctioning propane or natural gas heaters that produce ethylene; too warm, or warm after being cool.  Potato sprouts are toxic, see my earlier article.

Planting potatoes.
Photo Wren Vile

What Makes Sweet Potatoes Sprout?

Sweet potatoes crated in the field.
Photo Nina Gentle

The difference between Peruvian (“white”) potatoes and sweet potatoes

Peruvian potatoes (sometimes mistakenly called Irish potatoes) are stem tubers in the nightshade family; sweet potatoes are root tubers in the Morning Glory family. Stem tubers have buds, nodes and internodes, and scaly leaves, and the ability to develop chlorophyll when exposed to light. Root tubers do not have these attributes. This article is only about sweet potatoes.

The difference between curing and storage

Some vegetables need to cure before storage and the curing conditions are different from those needed for storage. Curing allows skins to harden and some of the starches to convert to sugars. These changes help the tubers to store for months.

Curing sweet potatoes

Within an hour or two after harvest, field drying, sorting and crating, take the boxes of sweet potatoes to a warm, damp indoor space to cure. Curing allows the skin to thicken, cuts to heal, and some of the starches to convert to sugars. Uncured sweet potatoes are not very sweet, will not bake well, and are best used in dishes with other foods.

In addition to promoting the healing of wounds acquired during harvesting and handling, the curing conditions are necessary for development of a protective cork layer over the whole root. And a waxy material (suberin) is produced by the root’s outer cells and covers the skin. This layer acts as a barrier to disease organisms, and prevents excess moisture loss.

Boxes of sweet potatoes curing.
Photo Nina Gentle

Curing involves optimizing three conditions: temperature, relative humidity and ventilation. Ideal curing conditions are 85°F–90°F (29°C–32°C), and 80–95% humidity for 4–7 days. Curing takes longer (as much as 3 weeks) if conditions are less than perfect. Dry air does not lead to good curing. If the air is below 66% humidity, timely good healing will not take place, and the sweet potatoes will not store well unless more time is allowed. The loss from decay in sweet potatoes cured at 50% is twice that of those cured at 82%. (Storage of sweetpotatoes, Jacob Martin Lutz, USDA, 1958)

In the past we used our greenhouse to cure sweet potatoes, but it really is too hot and sunny, and dry. Nowadays we use a heated basement. We stack our 4” (10cm) deep boxes of roots on pallets, with wood spacer bars between boxes in each stack, to ensure air flow. We use box fans to improve the airflow, and the basement already has some natural ventilation. We reckon on 10–14 days.

We get quite good temperatures, but keeping humidity up is difficult for us. We cover the flats with newspaper to hold in some moisture. Some people use perforated plastic. We have also used domestic humidifiers and we’ve tried hanging strips of wet cloth from the ceiling. The best result seems to come from splashing water on the concrete floor several times each day.

To test if curing is complete, rub two sweet potatoes together. If the skins scratch, they need to cure longer. Curing longer than needed leads to sprouting.

Sweet potato storage

Sweet potatoes can be stored in the same room they are cured in, but it is important to cool the room evenly and fairly rapidly from the curing temperature of 85°F–90°F (29°C–32°C),  to the storage temp of 55–60°F (13°C–16°C) in 10 days or fewer.

Above 60°F (16°C), shrinking, pithiness, and internal cork (a symptom of a viral disease) when the virus is present may occur, and below 55°F (13°C), a permanent chilling injury (Hard Core) can happen. The potatoes remain hard no matter how long you cook them, and are useless. Do not ever let the temperature drop below 50°F (10°C). Ideal storage conditions for sweet potatoes include 60–70% humidity, up to 85 %, with one air change each day. If the heat circulation is uneven, hot spots can develop in front of the heaters and cause severe losses. Never let hot air blow directly on the sweet potatoes. Do not store in airtight containers, sweet potatoes need one complete air change per day.

Ken Allan, in Sweet Potatoes for the Home Garden, informs us that at about 60°F (16°C), the metabolism of the sweet potato slows to near zero, meaning it won’t grow. Temperatures above 70°F (21°C) are conditions that allow growth: although slow at 70°F (21°C), the rate increases to fast at 100°F (38°C).

We use a rodent-proof “cage” in our basement. We stack the boxes directly on top of each other and this seems to keep enough moisture in. This way, assuming we had a good enough harvest, we can still have sweet potatoes into May and early June. Shrinkage occurs at 1–2 % per month if cured, 2–5 % if uncured. In some cultivars, pithiness also increases with length of storage.

Sweet potatoes do not need to be in the dark. Dormancy is generally broken by moisture and warmth, not daylight. Green sweet potato sprouts are edible, not toxic, as white potato sprouts are.

The effects of ethylene

Ethylene is a naturally occurring, odorless, colorless gas produced by many fruits and vegetables, but it can also be produced by faulty heating units and combustion engines. Propane heaters should not be used, as propane combustion produces ethylene. Incomplete combustion of organic fuels can result in the production of carbon monoxide, ethylene and other byproducts. Do not use any unvented hydrocarbon fuel heaters near stored produce.

Ethylene is associated with ripening, sprouting and rotting. Some crops produce ethylene in storage—apples, cantaloupes, ripening tomatoes all produce higher than average amounts. Chilling, wounding and pathogen attack can all induce ethylene formation in damaged crops.

Some crops, including most cut greens, are not sensitive to ethylene and can be stored in the same space as ethylene-producing crops. Other crops are very sensitive and will deteriorate in a high-ethylene environment. Potatoes will sprout, ripe fruits will go over the top, carrots lose their sweetness and become bitter. Sweet potatoes are sensitive to ethylene and should not be stored with any crops or any heating systems that produce ethylene. Symptoms are difficult to diagnose, but ethylene can cause internal darkening and pithy areas, as well as sprouting.

Accidental sprouting of sweet potatoes

If your curing or storage conditions were not right, you may get early sprouting. If this happens, snap off the sprouts and use the sweet potatoes as soon as possible. If the sweet potato also has soft and wrinkly flesh, it’s an indication that it has lost nutrients. Left longer, spouted sweet potatoes become mushy and turn brown or black.

Seed sweet potatoes growing slips.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

Intentional sprouting of sweet potatoes

Sweet potatoes that are intended for sprouting are kept under normal storage conditions, then conditioned for 2 weeks (or even 4), before you start to grow slips. Start 10–12 weeks before your planting date, conditioning at 75°F–85°F (24°C–29°C), 95% humidity for 2–4 weeks, then set to sprout. Set up a place with light, humidity and ventilation at 75°F–85°F (24°C–29°C) and 12″ (30 cm) of headroom.

Summary: Sweet potatoes are more likely to sprout if they were cured for too long; curing conditions were too far from ideal; temperatures stayed too high—above 60°F (16°C)—once the sweet potatoes were cured (especially at high humidity); they were exposed to low temperatures followed by higher ones; they were physically damaged or stored near ethylene sources.

Sweet potato harvest
Photo Nina Gentle

Asian vegetables for November: daikon and other winter radishes

Frosty daikon – harvest before temperatures drop to 20F
Photo by Bridget Aleshire

I realize this post in my Asian greens series is not exactly a leafy green, but hey, you do what you can. November is the time we harvest winter radishes and wash and sort them. We store the good condition ones in perforated plastic bags in a refrigerator. They store really well this way for several months.

Bucket lid with holes for sorting root vegetables for storage.
Photo Wren Vile

For our other root vegetables we have this bucket lid to help new workers determine what is too small to store. Skinny roots shrivel in storage, so it’s best to eat those up soon after harvest. Winter storage radish doesn’t have its own hole. Deciding what size to store at will depend which variety you are growing. The different varieties can be quite different shapes and sizes.

China Rose winter storage radish.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

We like the red-skinned China Rose, which is a round root, which could grow as big as 4″ in diameter. We prefer them at 2-3″ diameter. I’d use the “Turnips” hole or the “Beets” hole in our lid.

Southern Exposure Seed Exchange has this to say about Winter Storage Radishes:

Sow 5-10 weeks before first fall frost. Thin to wider spacing (4-6 in. apart) than regular radishes. Harvest before temperatures drop below 20 degrees F. Trimmed roots can store 2-3 months in the refrigerator or root cellar. These radishes are daylength-sensitive and should not be sown in spring.

Misato Rose radish. Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Misato Rose is very beautiful. It has an unexciting green and white skin, but inside, a burst of rose and white flesh. Wonderful when sliced or grated for salads. The round roots can grow up to 5″, although I recommend growing them closer and harvesting more of them, in the 3″-4″ range. According to SESE, this is a very forgiving crop – unlike many radishes, this variety will still bulb properly even if over-crowded or thinned late.

Miyashige daikon.
Photo Johnnys Selected seeds

Daikon (pronounced “dye-con”) is the Japanese word for radish. They are usually harvested when 12″ long and 2″-3″ in diameter, though they will grow much larger! Juicy and flavorful, they can be used fresh in salads (grated or thinly sliced), cooked in vegetable dishes (as you would cook turnips), pickled (as in kim chee) or grated with ginger and covered with soy sauce for a dip. They add a wonderful freshness and crunch to winter meals. The cylindrical white roots of Miyashige daikon are pale green near the crown and grow 16-18″ long by 2.5″-3″ across.

Daikons are brittle – they can easily break during harvest. Fork deeply and lift roots carefully. Those that do snap in half can heal over and store just fine.

As well as the true arm-length daikon, there are short stubby “half-long” Korean varieties, for the timid grower.

Black Spanish winter radish.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

There is one winter radish I’m not a fan of – the Black Spanish radish. This attractive, round white radish with a matt-black skin has had a tendency to become fibrous, when I’ve grown it. If you’ve had success, do leave a comment, telling about your climate and growing method.

Winter storage radishes are for July and early August sowing, as they are relatively slow growing. We sow August 4 in central Virginia. Don’t try sowing in spring, they will bolt.

Shunkyo Semi-long radish.
Photo Johnnys Selected Seeds

One that can be grown year-round is slow-bolting Shunkyo Semi-Long. This 4″-5″ long, smooth, attractive cylindrical radish has deep pink roots and crisp white flesh. The flavor is a combination of spicy and sweet. The edible leaves are smooth with attractive rhubarb-pink stems.

In November we clear crops from the outdoor garden in this order, and in anticipation of these night temperatures:

25°F:broccoli, fennel, scallions, Chinese Cabbage

20°F: turnips, cauliflower, celeriac, winter radish,

15°F: beets, rowcovered lettuce (the last), kohlrabi, komatsuna, rpwcovered celery,

12°F: fall varieties of leeks, senposai, carrots, cabbage,

10°F: Yukina Savoy, Deadon cabbage, tatsoi, rowcovered scallions.

From December our “Asian greens of the month” will be harvested from the hoophouse.

Cold nights, Cool season hoophouse crops, CASA conference

Ginkgo Golden Puddle Day
November 10 2017.
Photo Pam Dawling

We had a few 24F nights and the ginkgo trees responded by instantly dropping all their leaves. A beautiful sight.


At the Carolina Farm Stewardship Association Sustainable Agriculture Conference I gave a presentation called Sequential Planting of Cool Season Crops in High Tunnels as part of the Friday morning High Tunnel Crop Production Intensive workshop. It’s a new workshop I prepared especially for the CFSA. I usually call the structures hoophouses rather than high tunnels, but either name is fine. It used to be said that farmers called them hoophouses and researchers and academics called them high tunnels. Nowadays there is not such a binary distinction; farmers do research and teach, researchers and academics grow crops. Here is the longer version of the slideshow, including “bonus material” I didn’t include in the 60 minute presentation. Click the diagonal arrow icon to view full screen.

On the Sunday I gave a presentation on Year-Round Hoophouse Production which was a back-to-back presentation of the Hoophouse in Spring and Summer and the Hoophouse in Fall and Winter.  You can view those slideshows by clicking the links to them on the SlideShare.net site.


I’ve added a new event to my calendar for January. You can see all the events I plan to speak at, by clicking the Events tab at the top of the screen on my home page. This one is the Chesapeake Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture Future Harvest Conference January 11-13, 2018 at College Park, MD.

On Saturday January 13 11.30am -12.30pm I’m presenting Cold-Hardy Winter Vegetables – Why farm in winter? Information includes tables of cold-hardiness; details of four ranges of cold-hardy crops; overwintering crops for spring harvests; scheduling; weather prediction and protection; hoophouse growing; and vegetable storage.

I might also be participating with other speakers in a new format Lightning Session, where we each get 10 minutes to tell the audience the top 5 things we want them to know about a certain topic. That isn’t decided yet.

I also hope to be signing books at the Southern Exposure Seed Exchange booth at some point.


Meanwhile here on the farm it’s got colder, as I said at the beginning, and even dreary some days. We are getting our winter carrots harvested, getting ready to plant garlic, adding draft-proofing strips to our hoophouse doors, and admiring and harvesting our hoophouse salad crops.

November hoophouse lettuce bed.
Photo Wren Vile

Soil tests and high phosphorus levels

I just got back from the Carolina Farm Stewardship Association Conference, where I had a great time. I will be posting my slideshow Sequential Planting of Cool Season Crops in a High Tunnel here next week, after I’ve added back in some of the material I had to cut to fit the time slot. Meanwhile here’s some in depth thoughts about phosphorus levels, an issue for those of us who pile lots of animal manure or compost on our gardens.

Soil pH analysis machine at Virginia Tech.
Photo from Virginia Tech

This is the best time to get a Soil Test

            Get an annual soil test in the fall, from the same agency each time—different labs sometimes use varying test methods. Also, soil collected in spring is usually higher in P than soil collected in the fall. Consult an agronomy book, your extension service, or a live agronomist for help in interpreting your test results. Most soil tests don’t include a measure of organic matter as this can vary a lot from week to week. My state extension service provides standard tests for soil pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and estimated CEC, plus a fertilizer and lime recommendation. For a small fee there are special tests for soluble salts and organic matter.

Amendments and the Issue of High Phosphorus

High levels of soluble salts, including nitrate, potassium, and sulfate from fertilizers or organic materials like compost can build up and stunt plant growth.  Some of the salt problems are caused by having very high organic matter levels, due to heavy amendment with composts or manures. In high OM soils, when warm or when irrigated after a dry spell, large flushes of nitrate can occur. This makes it difficult to manage nitrogen levels.

Organic soil amendments include soil inoculants, organic mulches, biochar and other soil conditioners, lime and other natural minerals, manure and other organic fertilizers, such as alfalfa meal, soybean meal, fish meal, kelp, composted chicken litter and compost.

Screening compost from a huge pile, for spring seedling compost.
Photo Wren Vile

Most growers are lavish with compost when they can be. Good quality finished compost is a way to add organic matter and nutrients. Compost can add a range of beneficial bacteria and fungi, which can inoculate plants against diseases by inducing systemic acquired resistance. The plants produce antibodies and other protective compounds before any infection can occur. Compost improves the soil structure, organic matter and humus. The effects last longer than cover crops and crop residues, especially in humid conditions where the breakdown of plant material is very rapid.

How much compost is too much? Some of us were raised to think of compost as the gold standard soil improver, and find it hard to believe there can be too much of a good thing. Others may consider compost like salad dressing—something to add that je-ne-sais-quoi to a good meal.

Compared with poultry litter compost (lower C:N  ratio), on-farm mixed compost (high C:N) leads to higher total soil organic C and N, higher N mineralization potential and better water infiltration. Poultry litter compost can enhance organic matter and N mineralization potential over conventional systems, but can lead to excess P. In terms of organic matter, composted manure is better than uncomposted solid manure, and both add more than slurry manure (which provides very low C:N; and half of the N is ammonium).

Manure and compost can add too much P relative to N and K. It is worthwhile to understand the effect of phosphorus.

Phosphorus in the Soil and in Plants

Phosphorus is needed for cell division, hence to promote root formation and growth, vigorous seedlings, flowering, crop maturity and seed production, and to improve winter hardiness in fall plantings. Phosphorus is important in fat, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen metabolism, in respiration, and in photosynthesis. It is stored in seeds and fruit.

Phosphorus binds easily with many other minerals in the soil, forming compounds that are not very soluble in water, therefore most of the phosphate in soils exists in solid form and phosphorus does not move freely with soil water. Although P is very mobile within plants, it is relatively immobile in soil and does not leach readily in normal rainfall or irrigation.

P is most available to plants between soil pH of 6 and 7.5, especially pH 6.5-6.8.

In neutral and alkaline soils P is mostly present as insoluble calcium phosphates. In acid soils below pH 5.5, most of the P is bound as iron phosphate or aluminum phosphate, compounds that further change gradually into very insoluble compounds not available to plants. If a soil test shows a pH that is far from neutral, with a slightly low P level, correct the pH and repeat the soil test before amending the P level.

In the soil water, P is only present in very small amounts, but when removed by plants, supplies are quickly replenished from the “active P pool” (P in solid compounds which is relatively easily released to the soil solution). The “fixed P pool” contains inorganic phosphate compounds that are very insoluble, and organic compounds that are resistant to mineralization by microorganisms in the soil. Although some slow conversion between the fixed P pool and the active P pool does occur in the soil, phosphate may remain for years without being available to plants and may have very little impact on soil fertility.

Since the movement of phosphates in soils is very limited, roots have to grow to the phosphorus—it will not move towards the plants. Manure contains soluble phosphate, organic phosphate, and inorganic phosphate compounds that are quite available. Water-soluble forms generally become insoluble very soon after application to the soil.

Phosphorus Deficiency

In cold soils less P is available from organic materials, because biological activity is required to release it and it runs slow when it’s cold. Also, roots cannot absorb P well from cool soils.  Early spring brassicas can show red or purplish colors (anthocyanin pigment) in the leaves, especially undersides, and the lower stems. Cell necrosis may follow. Root growth will be poor, plants may exhibit stunting and delayed maturity. Tomato plants may have yellow leaves, with purpling on the underside of leaves. They may exhibit reduced flowering and delayed maturity. To avoid P deficiency problems, wait until the soil is 60°F (15.5°C) before planting.

Effects of excess soil salt levels on crop foliage.
Photo Rose Ogutu, Horticulture Specialist, Delaware State University

Excess Phosphorus

The main symptom of excessive phosphorus in soil is stunted plant growth. High P interferes with N absorption. Also there may be symptoms of deficiencies of zinc, iron, cobalt or calcium, because the P has locked up these nutrients.  Zn deficiency shows as bleaching of plant tissue, Fe deficiency as yellowing between leaf veins. Co is involved in the process by which the plant stem grows, shoot tips elongate, and leaves expand. Ca deficiency produces blossom end rot of tomatoes.

Phosphorus inhibits the growth of mycorrhizae which help the plant absorb water and nutrients. Increased growth of non-mycorrhizal weeds such as velvetleaf, lambsquarters, pigweed and galinsoga can be sign of excess P, explained Klaas Martens at MOFGA’s 2009 Spring Growth Conference.

Aside from plant growth problems, the issues with having very high P levels in your soil include that if it reaches waterways it can accelerate eutrophication—the nutrient enrichment of surface water leading to problem algal growth. When an algal bloom dies, it decomposes, using up the oxygen in the water, so fish and other organisms die too. Phosphorus is a paradoxical element in that it is an essential nutrient, is not toxic itself and has low solubility, but can have damaging effects on water quality at quite low concentrations.  Because P is usually locked up, leaching of soluble P from soils is not normally a problem, but if soil particles are carried to a river or lake, P is contained in this sediment.

Mitigating High Phosphorus Levels

Ear of triticale.
Photo triticale-infos.eu

The quickest way to reduce excess soil P (which can take years!) is to stop any manure or compost application while continuing to grow crops that can be eaten or sold. One solution for vegetable growers may be to grow cover crops as forage crops, and graze or bale grass crops to sell off the farm as livestock feed. For example, triticale is very good at removing P from the soil and producing winter forage. The P removed ranges from 7–36 pounds/acre (7.8–40 kg/ha). The more P your soil has, then the higher the P level in triticale grown in that soil. Double cropping can remove P at twice the rate.

Vegetable growers do not have the problem of P accumulation to such a big degree as livestock farmers, nor do vegetable crops remove P at the rate forages do. See the New England Vegetable Management Guide Removal of Nutrients from the Soil for a table of Approximate Nutrient Removal by Selected Vegetable Crops. The best vegetable removers of P are celery (80 lbs P2O5/acre, 90 kg/ha), tomatoes (72 lbs, 81 kg), potatoes (65 lbs, 73 kg), sweet potatoes (60 lbs, 67 kg), peppers (52 lbs, 58 kg, fruits only), cucumbers (33–72 lbs, 37–81 kg), eggplant (56 lbs, 63 kg). Onions remove about 25 lbs (28 kg/ha) one-quarter of the P removed by alfalfa hay (104 lbs, 117 kg) In all cases, to achieve results this high, grow high yields and remove the vines too, although you can’t sell those! Beans and peas are in the 7–10 lbs (8–11 kg) range if just pods, 20 lbs (22 kg) with vines. P2O5 is 43.7% P.

Celery, the star of phosphorus-removing vegetable crops.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

Strategies to reduce the amount of P added each year include adjusting your compost use rates according to soil test P results. On low-P soil, use at rates to meet the soil needs for N or K, which will  increase P levels. If the soil P is high or optimum, use compost sufficient to just replenish P, and legume cover crops (or legume food crops) to supplement N. For very high or excess soil P, only use compost sparingly as a micro-organism inoculant, rather than a fertilizer, and  if  test reports show more than 40 lbs P per acre (45 kg/ha), consider using only soil amendments containing little or no P. If phosphorus levels are excessive, avoid using manure composts (high in phosphorus), and other fertilizers and amendments containing phosphorus. Add more carbon (“brown”) ingredients to compost you make on-farm.

 

Making baby salad mix

Salad Mix freshly harvested.
Photo Pam Dawling

Our salad mix season has started! Very exciting! During the summer we have heads of lettuce and the warm weather salad crops like tomatoes and cucumbers. But now we’ve had a couple of frosts and we are starting to harvest mixed salads, mostly from our hoophouse. This involves snipping the outer leaves of various crops into ribbons, cutting small individual leaves from other crops and mixing the ingredients. In the photo above are spinach, Tokyo Bekana, Bull’s Blood beet leaves and a speck of Ruby Streaks. There is no lettuce in the picture. In October and early November we harvest the last of our outdoor lettuce and mix that in.

Tokyo Bekana in our hoophouse in late October.
Photo Pam Dawling

Our general salad mix harvesting approach is to mix colors, textures and crop families. I like to balance lettuce of different kinds with chenopods (spinach, baby chard, Bull’s Blood beet leaves) and brassicas (brassica salad mix, baby tatsoi, thinnings of direct-sown brassicas, chopped young leaves of Tokyo bekana, Maruba Santoh or other Asian greens, mizuna, other ferny mustards such as Ruby Streaks, Golden Frills and Scarlet Frills).

Ruby Streaks and mizuna.
Photo Kathleen Slattery

I prefer to harvest and chop as I go, mixing everything at the end. It might seem easier to harvest first and then cut and mix, but that requires handling the greens a second time which causes more damage. Incidentally, tearing damages more  than cutting, so just get a good pair of scissors and keep them sharp. I cut and gather until I have a handful of leaves, then roll them lengthwise and cut into ribbons. The width of the ribbon depends on the crop. I like to have different size shreds. Mild flavor and plentiful items I cut on the wider side, stronger flavors narrower. I also want every bowlful to get some red highlights, so if red leaves are in short supply that day, I cut those thin.

Bull’s Blood beet greens in our hoophouse in late October.
Photo Pam Dawling

Use knives to cut whole heads, if you are doing that. Ceramic or serrated plastic knives cause less rapid browning to cut leaf edges, but almost all growers I know use metal knives.

Brassica salad mixes are easy to grow. There are various mustard mixes you can buy, to complement your baby lettuce mix. It doesn’t work well to mix lettuce seed and brassica seed together when sowing, as the crops grow at different rates. It is better to grow separate patches and customize your mix when you harvest. Wild Garden Seed has Wild Garden Pungent Mix, and the mild Pink Petiole Mix. Some seed companies now sell individual crops for mixes (see Johnnys Selected Seeds or Fedco Seeds Asian Greens for example). We mix our own Brassica Salad Mix from leftover random brassica seeds. For a single cut, almost all brassicas are suitable, except very bristly turnips. We sow in early February for March and early April harvests. Even if you don’t plan to grow brassica salad mix, keep it in mind as a worthwhile backup plan if other crops fail, or outdoor conditions are dreadful and you need a quick crop to fill out what you have.

Our first sowing of brassica salad mix, ready to harvest in mid-October.
Photo Pam Dawling

To harvest baby lettuce mix or brassica salad mix (also called mustard mix), use scissors, shears or a serrated knife, and cut an inch (a few centimeters) above the soil to spare the growing point of the plants for regrowth. Some growers use a leaf rake to pull out debris after each harvest of baby leaf lettuce, and minimize the chance of including bits of old rotting leaves in the next cut. For small plants, it works fine to pinch off individual leaves, provided you are careful not to tug–small plants may not be very firmly anchored in the soil! Small leaves can go in the mix whole

Young lettuce mix growing in our hoophouse.
Photo Ethan Hirsh

Baby lettuce mix can be cut 21 days from seeding in warm weather, but from November to mid-February, it may take two or three times as long from sowing to first harvest. Cool season lettuce mix may provide four or more cuttings, but in warm weather it will only provide a single harvest. Excessive milkiness from the cut stems is a sign of bitterness. You can also test by nibbling a piece of leaf. Our winter salad mixes end at the end of April, when our outdoor lettuce heads are ready for harvest.

Growing and eating healthful produce

Organic crops need healthy soil.
Photo keep the Soil in Organic

I’ve written before about my queasiness about hydroponics  recently and also earlier this year here and here. Big hydroponic “organic” industries have lobbied and got included as certifiably Organic, when most of us realize that growing food without soil is the opposite of Organic, with or without a capital O.

The Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (fondly known as SSAWG) has posted in their E-newsletter Seeds of Sustainability, about the Great Nutrient Collapse. This article written by for Politico. You can read it all here.

Irakli Loladze by Geoff Johnson for POLITICO

Irakli Loladze (a mathematician by training)  was in a biology lab in 1998, studying for his PhD at Arizona State University.

Biologists had discovered they could grow algae faster by shining more light onto them— which should have helped the zooplankton which lives on algae, by increasing their food supply. But although the algae grew faster, the zooplankton did not. They had plenty to eat—but more food did not lead to more growth.This was a paradox.

The increased light was causing the algae to grow faster, but they contained fewer nutrients. By growing faster, the algae had turned into junk food! The zooplankton had large quantities of food, but it was less nutritious, and they were starving. Irakli Loladze used his math training to help measure what was happening. He and the biologists devised a model of the relationship between a food source and a eater of that  food. They published their first paper in 2000.It didn’t make a huge splash because not so many people care deeply about zooplankton or algae.

Irakli Loladze was intrigued by a much bigger question that the experiment raised in his mind. “What struck me is that its application is wider,” Loladze explained in an interview. Could the same problem affect grass and cows? What about rice and people? “It was kind of a watershed moment for me when I started thinking about human nutrition,” he said.

The real-life issue isn’t that plants are getting more light than they used to. It’s that  they’re  getting more carbon dioxide than they used to. Carbon dioxide is as vital as light for plants  to grow. If extra light results in faster-growing, less nutritious algae, then it is reasonable to assume that increasing carbon dioxide could do the same. What could this mean for the  people eating those plants?

It is well-documented that CO2 levels have been rising, but little research had been done on how that affected the quality of the plant foods we eat. For 17 years, Loladze searched the scientific literature for studies and data. The information all seemed to acknowledge that the junk-food effect he had learned about with the zooplankton and algae was also occurring in farms and forests world-wide. Loladze reported: “Every leaf and every grass blade on earth makes more and more sugars as CO2 levels keep rising. We are witnessing the greatest injection of carbohydrates into the biosphere in human history―[an] injection that dilutes other nutrients in our food supply.” To demonstrate, he tossed sugar over vegetables to represent how the sugar content of the plant crops we eat is rising due to rising carbon dioxide levels.

It has been accepted for years that many of our foods have been getting less nutritious. Measurements of fruits and vegetables show that the minerals, vitamin and protein content has dropped over the past 50-70 years. We thought we knew why – we’ve been breeding varieties for higher yields, rather than nutrition, and they have become less nutrient-dense. But this may not be the whole story.

In 2002 Loladze published a research paper in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, arguing that rising CO2 and human nutrition were inextricably linked through a global shift in the quality of plants as food.Very little research had been published, and Loladze’s paper was first to link the impact of CO2 on plants to human nutrition and health. He has continued working on this issue, which is starting to gain wider interest and attention.

USDA researchers recently took varieties of rice, wheat and soy they had stored from the 1950s and 1960s and planted them in various sites around the U.S. where they were grown decades ago, in order to better understand how today’s higher levels of CO2 affect them.

In 2014, a team of scientists published a large, data-rich study Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition, in the journal Nature that looked at several important crops grown at several research sites in Australia, Japan and the United States.  They found that rising CO2 led to a drop in protein, iron and zinc.

On that same day in 2014, Loladze published his own paper, (Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition), which was the result of more than 15 years of work, and was the largest study in the world on the impact on plant nutrients of rising CO2.  Across 130 varieties of plants and more than 15,000 samples collected over the past 30 years, the overall concentration of minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron has dropped by an average of 8% . The ratio of carbohydrates to minerals is going up. The crop plants are becoming junk food.


Fauxganic hydroponic tomatoes. Photo from Keep the Soil in Organic

Reading this article lead me to make a connection with hydroponics. It made me wonder again about the nutrient quality of hydroponically grown food. Have any studies have been done on the issue of nutrient density (or lack of) in hydroponically-grown vegetables?

Glenn Kern, the Organic Policy Coordinator for Carolina Farm Stewardship Association, said: “Off the top of my head, I don’t know of studies that have looked for and found the kinds of nutritional differences discussed in the article about CO2. I agree–this is an important question.” He reported that the National Organic Standards Board Crops Subcommittee’s current proposal on hydroponics includes some discussion of published academic studies evaluating observed biological differences between crops grown in soil and crops grown hydroponically. You can find the Crops Subcommittee’s proposal here. Under “Resources,” click on “Meeting Materials.” The Crops Subcommittee’s proposal starts on page 63 and the discussion of plant physiological differences begins on page 71.
I’m with the Keep the Soil in Organic movement. Well-cared-for soil is at the heart of organic farming. It is extremely arrogant of people to imagine that any synthesized solution supplied to plants held in inert media or plastic pipes can provide all the benefits of soil. There is much we do not know about the soil, and the interactions of the soil food web. I doubt we even know everything about micro-nutrients, never mind enzymes that promote growth, inhibit diseases, promote recovery from diseases, strengthen resistance to physical stresses and all the rest of it.
Artificially grown crops are the opposite of organic. Organic farming encourages us to feed the soil, not the plant, to look at the long-term well-being of the planet, the wider effects of farming practices on all around, and the health of the people growing and eating the food.
NOFA Vermont has made a short film with Eliot Coleman and Dave Chapman talking about why soil matters.

Why is soil important to all of us? As global citizens, this is a very important question. This film was made to reach out and inform the NOSB. Please check it out.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op3J5GFmfzo&feature=youtu.be

The Keep The Soil in Organic website is keepthesoilinorganic.org.
Their Facebook Page is Keep The Soil In Organic
Their Twitter account is @keepsoilinorganic

Asian Greens in October: Yukina Savoy, Tatsoi

Yukina Savoy
Photo Wren Vile

Yukina Savoy is a very  delicious cold tolerant cooking green. It grows in a rosette, like  tatsoi, but bigger, less shiny, more blistered. It survives down to 10°F (-12°C) outdoors, so is a good outdoor crop in late fall. Ours is doing so well this year that we started eating outer leaves in early October, planning to eat more later. We eat from the outdoor crop from mid-October until  mid-December. Outdoors, we transplant them 12″ (30 cm) apart.

Yukina Savoy outdoors in December, after several nights at 16-17°F (-8 to -9°C)
Photo Ethan Hirsh

We have also transplanted some in our hoophouse (sown 9/15) to feed us in December and January. A second sowing (9/24) will feed us in January and February. It is fast-growing in the fall, taking 21 days to reach baby size, 45 days to full size. The plants grow quite large, we transplant them at 10.5″ (26 cm) apart. They grow 12″ (30 cm) tall.

In the spring (which comes early indoors) Yukina Savoy has the advantage of being somewhat heat-tolerant – it doesn’t bolt until the middle of March in there. Of course, we aim to have eaten it all before they get a chance to bolt.

For commercial sales, the whole plants are cut, gathered and fastened with a tie. For home use, you have the option of simply taking the leaves you want for immediate use, and letting the heart of the plant continue to make more growth.

Open-pollinated Yukina Savoy.
Photo Ethan Hirsh

The photo to the left shows the open-pollinated variety we used to buy from Fedco Seeds, but sadly they no longer have that. Instead we bought a hybrid Koji from Johnnys Selected Seeds. Koji claims to be “attractive, upright, and earlier maturing than Yukina Savoy, which it replaced.” I think the “more upright” and possibly the “earlier maturing” parts are true.  Attraction is in the eye of the beholder. I think Koji is less cold-hardy and less blistered than the OP type, shinier, and with greener stems.

Yukina Savoy Koji.
Photo Wren Vile

I’ve found the OP one at Kitazawa Seeds, where it is classified as Chinese cabbage, loose head type. It’s a Brassica Rapa Pekinensis Group, for those considering saving seed.

 The only photo of the Koji fully grown that we have is here on the left. This one is bolting, so it’s not a totally fair comparison.

Both types are delicious, and easy to cook.

We had been including Yukina Savoy in our hoophouse bed which has nematodes, thinking it is Brassica Juncea, which has some resistance to root knot nematodes. Back to the drawing board, on that plan!


Tatsoi.
Photo Ethan Hirsh

Tatsoi is a smaller, shiny dark-green leafed plant with whiter stems. The leaves are sometimes described as “spoon-shaped” – the white stem is the spoon handle and the leaf blade is the bowl of the spoon. The plant grows as a flat rosette if it has plenty of space, but more upright if crowded as in the photo above. The flavor is milder than Yukina Savoy. In the fall, it takes 21 days for baby salads; 45 days for cooking. We don’t plant tatsoi in spring, as it would bolt before growing in our “Instant Summer” climate.

Tatsoi is also very cold-tolerant, similarly hardy to 10°F (–12°C). We no longer grow this one outdoors, because Yukina Savoy is bigger and easier. We prefer our small plants be in the hoophouse, where there are almost no weeds, and we don’t mind spending longer harvesting in winter. (More tatsoi per bucketful than Yukina Savoy = more time).

We direct sow in the hoophouse on Sept 6, one of our first fall hoophouse sowings. We sow rows 6″ apart, knowing they will get crowded. We thin into salad mixes, leaving some plants to mature at 10″ (25 cm) across for cooking greens. Tatsoi also transplants easily – I’d probably go for 6″ (15 cm) spacing if transplanting. The first sowing feeds us from 10/20 – 12/31, with thinnings for salad from Oct 8.

We make a second hoophouse sowing on November 15. This one takes 8 days to germinate. It will feed us from 2/12-3/12 (thinnings 12/27-1/21). So, altogether, we have full size tatsoi to harvest from October 25 – March 5. We usually either thin out the plants, or cut outer leaves until we see the plants are about to bolt, then cut heads.

Kitazawa Seeds have a  Red Tatsoi, a Red Violet tatsoi/pak choy hybrid, with an upright habit, and several tatsoi crosses, such as Misome (a fairly recent hybrid between Komatsuna and Tatsoi); Da Cheong Chae (with qualities of both Tatsoi and Pak Choi); Choho (one of several hybrids of Komatsuna and Tatsoi); and Savoy Tatsoi (dark green, heavily savoyed leaves with pale green petioles, giving it a spinach-like appearance).

Tatsoi in the hoophouse morning mist. Photo Wren Vile

 

What’s growing in the hoophouse; reading; planning for winter.

Tokyo Bekana in the hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

In the hoophouse we are perhaps half way through our bed preparations. The Tokyo Bekana was the first crop we transplanted from our outdoor nursery bed, and it’s looking very sturdy now.  We’ve also transplanted some Yukina Savoy and the first of the lettuces.

Cherry Belle radishes in the hoophouse, early October.
Photo Pam Dawling.

The crops we direct sowed in early September are growing well, and we are harvesting the radishes and some of the tatsoi and Bulls Blood beet greens (thinning to 6″ apart). The spinach is big enough to start harvesting but we haven’t needed to yet.

Hoophouse tatsoi in early October.
Photo Pam Dawling

The newer sowings (the second radishes and the first brassica baby salad mix (mustards) have emerged and are ready to thin to 1″. Sometimes we use thinned seedlings as a salad garnish, but it takes more time than simply pulling them out, and it takes attention to keep them clean.

This summer we grew more cover crops rather than seed crops, which we have been growing in summer for several years, because we were short of workers. In the photo below you can see some healthy cowpeas I’m going to be pulling up later today, as well as some pulled up and dried buckwheat. We don’t dig our cover crops under, just let them die on the surface for as long as possible, shedding bits of dead leaf, then haul them to the compost pile. With the cowpeas, we hope to leave the nitrogen nodules from the roots, by ripping the plants up roughly!

Iron and Clay cowpeas as cover crop in the hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

These cowpeas have been cut back two or three times over the summer, to keep them manageable. At one point, they were black with sooty mold growing on aphid honeydew. We wondered if it was going to be a bigger problem, but after we cut the plants back, most of the aphids seem to have died. We also got a healthy population of ladybugs.


December beds with row cover.
Photo Wren Vile

I gather readers are planning for winter, as many folks have been visiting my Winter-Kill Temperatures List of hardy crops. I update this list every spring, with the info from the previous winter. It’s useful for planning harvests based on forecast temperatures, and it’s useful for planning which winter crops will grow in your location, either inside or out.

On the same theme, I just discovered the WeatherSpark website which provides “The Typical Weather Anywhere on Earth”. Enter your nearest town or airport and you get clearly explained info with fascinating graphics of how the weather goes over the year in your locality. Note this is not a forecast site, it’s about average weather for each place. Useful to people who’ve recently moved and want to know what to expect this winter, or to new gardeners who haven’t paid so much attention previously. Or to those who want to check their assumptions (I really thought the wind was out of the west more of the time than records say). There are charts of high and low temperature, temperature by the hour each month, cloud cover, daily chance of precipitation (both rainfall and snowfall), hours of daylight, humidity, wind speed and direction and solar energy. A big help in making wise decisions. I know that climate change is going to cause havoc with averages, and we’ll need to learn to become better weather forecasters individually, and to use soil temperature and other metrics to decide when to plant. But this website explains things well.


Tomato seed strained in a sieve.
Photo Pam Dawling

I wrote a more concise description of saving tomato seed for the Mother Earth News Organic Gardening blog. For the full length version, see my two posts here and here.

The October Growing for Market is out. Flower farmer Erin Benzakein writes about getting to grips with the marketing side of running a farm. She encourages farmers to get good photos, step out from behind the camera, and dust off their website. I could use some of this advice! (I’ve been very busy writing a hoophouse book, and have necessarily paid less attention to giving presentations and to rejuvenating this website!

Kai Hoffman-Krull writes about on-farm trials of bio-char. I’m looking forward to reading that. Jesse Frost writes about winter CSAs and profiles some he visited. Chris Bodnar covers Italy’s thriving agricultural co-ops and asks if this could be a model for the next phase of the locally-grown movement. Lastly Zach Loeks offers the first of a two-part series on Transitioning to a permaculture market garden.

The September/October issue of Organic Broadcaster is also out. Articles include attending to soil health to improve production; the top reasons customers buy organic foods (accountability, environment, health); interseeding cover crops in cash crops; an interview with farmers in the MOSES Farmer-to-Farmer Mentoring Program; designing an efficient pack shed; and selecting the right meat processor.

Lastly, the campaign www.keepthesoilinorganic.org has posted a letter a letter recently sent out by farming mentor Eliot Coleman about the travesty of allowing hydroponics to be certified as Organic. Hydroponics is a system of growing plants anchored in holes in plastic tubes, or in blocks of inert material, and feeding them with a liquid solution of things that work to produce mature plants. The arrogance of imagining we know everything a plant needs is astounding! The idea that all the many complex ingredients of soil can be replaced with a synthetic concoction is staggering!

Eliot Coleman’s letter includes these quotes:

Organic farming is best defined by the benefits of growing crops on a biologically active fertile soil.

The importance of fertile soil as the cornerstone of organic farming is under threat. The USDA is allowing soil-less hydroponic vegetables to be sold as certified organic without saying a word about it.

The encouragement of “pseudo-organic” hydroponics is just the latest in a long line of USDA attempts to subvert the non-chemical promise that organic farming has always represented. Without soil, there is no organic farming.

 

Eliot Coleman will be a speaker, along with Fred Kirschenmann, Enid Wonnacott, Jim Riddle, Will Allen, Jeff Moyer, Dave Chapman, Anaise Beddard, Lisa Stokke, Tom Beddard and  Linley Dixon at the Jacksonville Rally of the Keep the Soil in Organic movement. Oct 31, 2017 at 12:45 pm – 2:00pm EDT. Omni Jacksonville Hotel, 245 Water St, Jacksonville, FL 32202, USAThis Rally will be a gathering of organic farmers and eaters from all over the world. The march will begin at the Omni Jacksonville during the lunch break from 12:45 to 2 PM on Tuesday, the first day of the NOSB meeting. There will be a 5 minute march to The Landing from the Omni. Lunch will be available at the Rally. For more information, call Dave Chapman at 802-299-7737.