Dragonfly Swarms, Mother Earth News, and Heritage Harvest Festival

Dragonfly photo courtesy Staunton News Leader

Swarms of dragonflies are popping up  in Virginia

Leanna Smith, in the Staunton News Leader reported that meteorologists in Ohio had spotted something unexpected on the radar on September 10 — a swarm of migrating dragonflies. The radar maps are impressive! The Common Green Darner dragonflies (Anax junius) were reported swarming in Maryland (Sep 11 evening), New Jersey (Sep 12 nighttime) and Virginia (Sep 11 and Sep 12 morning).

She reported that it is common for dragonflies, especially green darner dragonflies, to migrate south in the fall to find warmer weather, but the swarming is unusual. Ohio State University Entomology Professor Norman Johnson spoke to CNN and said that weather conditions can cause the traveling insects to swarm. In 2018, the Washington Post reported that the migration of green darner is typically unremarkable because the insects rarely travel in packs. Although much is still unknown about the migration of dragonflies, we do know that they are very sensitive to temperature. “Climate warming could really disrupt the presence of this migration,” Colin Studds, an animal ecologist at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, told the Post.

It is fairly common for radar to pick up biological movement, especially around sunrise and sunset when warmer air above us can bend the radar beam toward lower elevations where the movement is occurring, according to meteorologist Chris Michaels.

On September 10, the National Weather Service of Cleveland, Ohio tweeted about the new development.

Clouds of dragonflies.
Photo NWS Cleveland @NWSCLE

Ohio State University entomologist Norman Johnson said the dragonflies are likely Green Darners, which migrate south in the fall. “The insects don’t usually travel in flocks,” he told CNN, “but local weather conditions can cause them to bunch up.” “The big swarms have been recorded a lot over the years, but they’re not regular,” Johnson said.

Details of dragonfly migration are still unclear; researchers have found the winged creatures travel an average of 8 miles per day, but can fly as far as 86 miles.

For up to the minute sightings, see the Migratory Dragonfly Partnership Search page

TOWARD THE UNKNOWN  A common green darner can migrate hundreds of kilometers each year. A new study reveals details of the insects’ annual migration for the first time. Photo Mark Chappell

Susan Milius in Science News reports that Green Darner dragonflies migrate a bit like monarch butterflies, with each annual migratory loop taking multiple generations to complete.

Ecologist Michael Hallworth and colleagues wrote the migration of the common green darner, described December 19, 2018 in Biology Letters, using data on forms of hydrogen in the insects’ wings, plus records of first arrivals spotted by citizen scientists. Citation https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4320911.v2

“A first generation of insects emerges in the southern United States, Mexico and the Caribbean from about February to May and migrates north. Some of those Green Darners reach New England and the upper Midwest as early as March, says Hallworth, of the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center headquartered in Washington, DC.

Those spring migrant darners lay eggs in ponds and other quiet waters in the north and eventually die in the region. This second generation migrates south from about July until late October, though they have never seen where they’re heading. Some of these darners fly south in the same year their parents arrived and some the next year, after overwintering as nymphs.

A third generation emerges around November and lives entirely in the south during winter. It’s their offspring that start the cycle again by swarming northward as temperatures warm in the spring. With a wingspan as wide as a hand, they devote their whole lives to flying hundreds of kilometers to repeat a journey their great-grandparents made.

Tracking devices that let researchers record animals’ movements for more than a week or two haven’t been miniaturized enough to help. The smallest still weigh about 0.3 grams, which would just about double a darner’s weight, Hallworth says. So researchers turned to chemical clues in darner tissues. Conservation biologist and study coauthor Kent McFarland succeeded at the delicate diplomacy of persuading museums to break off a pinhead-sized wing tip fragment from specimens spanning 140 years.

Researchers checked 800 museum and live-caught specimens for the proportion of a rare heavy form of hydrogen that occurs naturally. Dragonfly wings pick up their particular mix of hydrogen forms from the water where the aquatic youngsters grow up. Scientists have noticed that a form called hydrogen-2 grows rarer along a gradient from south to north in North America. Looking at a particular wing in the analysis, “I can’t give you a zip code” for a darner, Hallworth says. But he can tell the native southerners from Yankees.

An adult darner, regardless of where it was born, is “a green piece of lightning,” says McFarland, of the Vermont Center for Ecostudies in White River Junction. Darners maneuver fast enough to snap insect prey out of the air around ponds across North America. The front of an adult’s large head is “all eye,” he says, and trying to catch samples for the study was “like hitting a knuckleball.”

Although the darners’ north-south migration story is similar to that of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), there are differences, says evolutionary biologist Hugh Dingle of the University of California, Davis, who has long studied Monarchs, which move northward in the spring in successive generations, instead of one generation sweeping all the way north.

Also, Dingle says, pockets of monarchs can buck the overall scheme. Research suggests that some of the monarchs in the upper Midwest do a whole round trip migration in a single generation. As researchers discover more details about green darners, he predicts, the current basic migration scheme will turn out to have its quirky exceptions, too.”

MASS MIGRATION

At least three generations make up the annual migration of common green darner dragonflies. The first generation emerges in the southern United States, Mexico and the Caribbean starting around February and flies north. There, those insects lay eggs and die, giving rise to second generation that migrates south until late October. (Some in that second generation don’t fly south until the next year, after overwintering as nymphs.) A third generation, hatched in the south, overwinters there before laying eggs that will start the entire process over again. These maps show the emergence origins of adult insects (gray is zero; red is many) captured at sampling locations (black dots).

Diagram by Matthew Dodder, M.T. Hallworth et al/Biology Letters 2018

Geek.com reports that this isn’t the first insect invasion of 2019. In June, the National Weather Service’s radar in San Diego picked up a giant crush of ladybugs about 80 miles across in each direction, over southern California. On June 27, residents of northeastern Ohio found themselves dealing with invasive mayflies, which covered cars, houses, and lampposts across Cleveland, Sandusky, and other areas.

———————————————————-

Mother Earth News Fair

I had a great time at the Mother Earth News Fair at Seven Springs, Pennsylvania. My first workshop, Lettuce Year Round, was on Friday lunchtime and attendees were still arriving. For those who wanted to hear all about it, but missed it, here is the slideshow:

And here is the extended version of Hoophouse Cool Season Crops. It has a lot of bonus material compared to the short workshop I gave last weekend.

Note that all the offers of pdfs of my books to download are scams and nothing to do with me! I cannot stop people posting them. It’s almost enough to stop me posting my slideshows, but I know people appreciate another chance to see the slides.

———————————————————-

Heritage Harvest Festival

This coming weekend, Saturday September 21, I’ll be presenting Winter Gardening: No Tech to High Tech with Ira Wallace at the Heritage Harvest Festival at Monticello in Charlottesville, VA. Ira will talk about outdoor winter gardening, and I’ll talk about hoophouse growing (which isn’t really that high tech!) It’s Saturday, Sept. 21 at 10:30am in the Heritage Tent. Here’s the LINK. The workshop is for gardeners to learn tips on growing cold-hardy vegetables (and not just kale!) out in the open and with varying degrees of protection from rowcovers, low tunnels, coldframes and hoophouses.

Read more about the Heritage Harvest Festival here

Buy tickets in advance here

Weeding rowcovered spinach in winter.
Photo Wren Vile

September in the hoophouse: sowing spinach, replacing bubble foil insulation, removing shadecloth

Two jars of sprouted spinach seeds and grits to prevent the damp seeds clumping.
Photo Pam Dawling

Sowing Spinach

We sow our first hoophouse spinach in the ground around September 7. Because it’s too hot in the hoophouse at this time for spinach seed to germinate, we pre-sprout the seed for a week in the fridge before sowing. This is very easy, much easier than growing beansprouts!

We measure out the amount of seed we’ll need and soak it overnight in a jar of water. We use 1oz (28 g) of seed per 90ft (27.4 m) row. We use a cup measure or a tablespoon that we keep in the spinach seed bucket. 7T = ½ cup. 1T=15 ml. It’s very roughly ½ cup per row. We use Mason jars and replace the flat metal lid with a piece of screen of some kind, metal or plastic, with holes smaller than spinach seeds. The Mason jar lid band holds this in place.

In the morning we drain off the excess water, and set the jar in the fridge on its side. Once a day we rotate the jar to even out the moisture and therefore hopefully the rate of growth of the shoots. After about a week the seeds have grown a short white root 1/8” (3 mm) long and are ready to sow.

Spinach seedlings from pre-sprouted seed in the hoophouse in September.
Photo Pam Dawling

When there is extra moisture with the seeds they can tend to clump together. One solution to this problem is to mix in a dry inert material like corn grits, as in the first photo, to make the seeds easier to sow individually. This year I tried a different approach. I spread out a scrap of rowcover on the ground and spread the seeds out on that to dry the surfaces. This made the seeds easy to sow, but I noticed that several white rootlets were left behind on the rowcover. I don’t know if the rowcover Velcro effect caused this or if it was a higher rate of damage than the grits treatment. It wasn’t a significant amount.

Replacing bubble foil

Beyond time to replace this torn and crumbling bubble foil insulation.
Photo Pam Dawling

We have a 3 ft (1 m) length of a foil and bubble-plastic roll material along the base of the north wall in our hoophouse. The north side is the coldest, and not a lot of direct light comes in there, that low down, so we decided to insulate from radiation losses and also get some light reflection back there. I think it works well, although I have not measured anything to see if my impressions are backed up by reality! We put the hoophouse up in 2003 and we have replaced this “bubble foil” once since. Definitely we left it too long since we last changed it. As well as big rips, we had micro-crumbs of plastic flaking off. Not what we want in our food!!

An office staple remover is the perfect tool for removing the batten tape (old driptape).
Photo Pam Dawling

I pulled off the old stuff, using an office staple remover to extract the old staples. I reused the scrap driptape we had been using as batten tape (still years of life left for it in that role!) My approach to agricultural plastics is to buy the most durable and treat them gently to make them last as long as possible. We had two partial rolls of the bubble foil material in the shed, so I used those, but found myself 14 ft (4 m) short, so we had to buy some more. I don’t know about durability, but the Reflectix product was the sturdiest at the start. How long would this stuff normally last? Two changes in 2003-2019 = 16 years. 8 years is too long! 6 or 7 seems like it might be OK. Ask me in 2025!

A quick crop of Tokyo bekana Asian greens for salad, in front of the new bubble foil.
Photo Pam Dawling

Removing the shadecloth

The 15 year-old shadecloth on our hoophouse is still serving us every summer.
Photo Pam Dawling

In the summer we cover our hoophouse with a large sheet of shadecloth. We pack it away in the second week of September. (It helps if the first bed of winter crops (planted September 6-7) has had a chance to germinate before we make it hotter in there by pulling off the shadecloth.) Our shadecloth is 50% knitted polyethylene. I think 45% would be better than 50%, next time we buy. And I think buying 100 ft (30 m) would be better than just the 96 ft (29 m) length of the hoophouse. See the way the shadecloth pulls away from the ends in the photo.

Our hoophouse in 2008 when the shadecloth was in better condition.
Photo Pam Dawling

We are still using the shadecloth we bought in 2004, 15 years later. It has a few mouse holes that happened in storage, and the fabric is starting to lose its strength and rip. We used to fix  snap-on grommets to the center-line of the shadecloth at the ends and tie with ropes onto the end wall structure. But nowadays the shadecloth is too weak to withstand the firm pull we need to give to get those ends in place. So we get a hot spot at each end of the hoophouse. We’ll need to buy new shadecloth in the next couple of years. Probably we can cut the old piece up into 7 ft (2 m) strips to use over beds of lettuce outdoors. It won’t need much tensile strength for that task.

We use snap-on grommets, big hooks in the baseboard and a long piece of rope, to hold the shadecloth along each long side of the hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cooking Greens in September

Fall-grown senposai.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cooking Greens to Harvest in Central Virginia in September

Chard and senposai are available here all month (and longer).

Some of the unusual warm weather cooking greens, such as Malabar Spinach, sweet potato vine tips, okra leaves, molokhia (Egyptian spinach, related to okra), manihot (aibika) are still edible in early September. See the July and August posts for more about those.

Yukina savoy, komatsuna, Maruba Santoh, pak choy, Tokyo Bekana and Chinese cabbage, can be available throughout September, if they were sown in late June or early July.

At last it is the season here for delicious new cooking greens! Broccoli (from 9/10), cauliflower (from 9/15), beet greens (from 9/20), cabbage (from 9/25), turnip greens (from 9/25), and collards from late September.

We may still have spring cabbage in the cooler, if we had a good harvest.

Cooking Greens to Sow in Central Virginia in September

September is a busy month for sowing greens outdoors. We want the crops to be established before cold weather, so they can make growth throughout the winter whenever it’s warm enough (anything above 40F (4.4C) is warm enough for kale, spinach and lettuce to grow a bit.).

Young tatsoi plants in our early hoophouse bed September 25.
Photo Pam Dawling

We also prepare and plant our first hoophouse bed. That post is  an excerpt from The Year-Round Hoophouse © Pam Dawling and New Society Publishers.

Here’s our day-by-day schedule for both outdoors and our hoophouse:
  • September 6: Direct sow in the hoophouse: spinach #1, tatsoi, Bulls Blood beets
  • September 7: Last date for first round of kale sowings outdoors.
  • By September 15: Sow outdoors if not done yet: kohlrabi, kale and collards; Hoop and net.
  • Early-mid September: Sow spinach #1 outdoors (pre-sprouted). We have trialed various spinach varieties for our hoophouse and for outdoors, and our current favorites are Reflect (outdoors) and Acadia (both outdoors and in the hoophouse).
  • September 15: our first round of nursery sowings for the hoophouse: pak choy, Chinese cabbage, Yukina Savoy, Tokyo bekana, chard, (as well as lettuce and frilly mustards for salad mixes). Two or three times in September we sow crops in an outdoor bed to be bare-root transplanted at about 3 weeks old into newly prepared hoophouse beds. This gives the warm weather hoophouse crops (including cover crops) longer to grow, and also gives the seeds cooler conditions to germinate in. Because the pest pressure outdoors is fierce at that time of year, we hoop and net these very important plants. Our rough formula for all transplanted fall brassicas is to sow around a foot (30 cm) of seed row for every 12’–15’ (3.6–4.6 m) of crop row, aiming for three seeds per inch (about 1 cm apart).
  • September 15 is our last date for resowing kale outdoors, if we are to get any winter harvests from it.
  • Mid-September: Sow spinach in the coldframes. In spring we will use the coldframes to harden off seedlings, but over the winter they make a nice sheltered space to grow more spinach. We will cover the coldframes in the middle of winter. An advantage of using the coldframes for spinach is that the area around the frames is all mulched, and accessible regardless of the weather.
  • By mid-September: Sow turnips outdoors, hoop and net them.
  • September 20-30: Sow spinach #2 outdoors for spring harvest. The goal here is to provide a succession of spinach harvests. This later sowing will size up in early spring and give good harvests before the newly transplanted spring spinach, and be better quality and more abundant than the beds sown in early September.
  • September 24: nursery sowings #2 for the hoophouse: we first -resow any failed #1 sowings; and also sow Red Russian kale, White Russian kale, senposai, Yukina Savoy, Frilly Mustards, and more lettuce. We hoop and net.
  • Late September: Sow Eat-All Greens See the Special Topic for September below.
  • September 30: As needed we resow any of the hoophouse transplants that we are short of.

Cooking Greens to Transplant in Central Virginia in September

An outdoor bed of young Vates kale Photo Kathryn Simmons

In early September, we transplant collards and kale if we didn’t finish in August.

We only grow Vates kale, a very cold-hardy dwarf Scotch curled type outdoors. When the kale is about 3-4 weeks old, we use plants from any of the beds to fill out any other (if we have enough spare plants). We resow if the survival rate is really poor. We eat any extra plants.

In late September, we finish the kale gap-filling. From then on, what we see is what we’ll get.

Other Cooking Greens Tasks in Central Virginia in September

Weed and thin kale to 12”

To improve spinach seed germination we have put spinach seeds in the freezer in mid-August or earlier (at least two weeks). We reclaim it from the freezer and let the waterproof container warn up to ambient temperatures before opening it. Otherwise condensation will land on the seeds and ruin them for future sowings.

Young spinach seedlings.
Photo Pam Dawling

To presprout spinach, measure the required amount of seed, put it in a jar and cover with water overnight. Fit a mesh screen lid (a piece of window screen held on a Mason jar by the metal band works well, although you can buy longer-lasting metal or plastic mesh lids too. In the morning, strain off the water, turn the jar on its side, shake out the seeds to lie along the side of the jar, and lay the jar in the fridge. Once a day, give the jar a quarter turn to shuffle the seeds and even out the moisture. You are not growing bean sprouts, and you do not need to rinse and drain the spinach seeds. After 6 or 7 days, the seeds will have sprouted enough to plant by hand. Perhaps spread the seeds to dry for an hour on a tray or a cloth. If the seeds stick together as you start to plant, mix in a little dry, inert, absorbent material like uncooked corn grits, bran or oatmeal (but not sticky bread flour).

Beet seeds can also be presprouted, but a bit more care is needed, as it is easy to drown beet seeds. Soak them in water for only an hour or two, and do not use much more water than needed. I realize that’s a tall order the first time you do this, as you won’t know how much is too much! Err on the side of caution! Don’t let the sprouts grow very long, as they are brittle. A short red sprout is all you need.

Special Cooking Greens Topic for September: Eat-All Greens

I introduced the topic of Virginian Eat-All Greens in my blog in November 2015.

Young rows of September-sown Eat-All Greens in early October.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Carol Deppe, in her delightful book The Tao of Vegetable Gardening explained the concept and the practice of growing Eat-All Greens. Carol grows these by broadcasting seed of one of her carefully chosen greens crops in a small patch. When it reaches 12″ tall, she cuts the top 9″ off for cooking, leaving the tough-stemmed lower part, perhaps for a second cut, or to return to the soil. I wanted to try this idea in Virginia, where the climate is fairly different from the Pacific Northwest where Carol lives. I decided fall was a promising time of year to try this scheme, and we sowed some on September 16 that year. We hadn’t planned ahead, and didn’t have the perfect range of seeds (see The Tao of Vegetable Gardening for that). We experimented with seeds we had on hand or could get quickly, and we sowed in rows rather than broadcast, because we knew we had a lot of weed seeds in the soil.

Carol Deppe has an article on How to Easily Grow High-Yielding Greens in Mother Earth News Feb/March 2016, which you can read about here

A section of Eat-All Greens in October.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

We harvested in October and for the third time on 11/3, and several more times. By December 22, I was noting “Our Eat-All Greens are still alive, if not exactly thriving. The peas have been harvested to death; the kohlrabi, beets and chards are never going to amount to anything; some of the more tender Asian mustard greens are showing some frost damage. On 12/10 we made one last crew foray to harvest – not greens, but roots!” We harvested two and half buckets of radishes and 5 gallons of turnips before the end of the year. I’m not sure how many harvests of cooking greens we’d had, but it felt plentiful..

Some Eat-All Greens in early November.
Photo Lori Katz

On January 12 I noted: “We had a low temperature of 6F on January 5th. Not much [of the Eat-All Greens patch] is left alive. Always enthusiastic to keep updating my list of cold-hardy winter vegetable crops, I took my notebook and walked the rows a few days later.”

I wrote up our Eat-All Greens for Growing for Market magazine and you can read it in the January 2016 issue. We thoroughly enjoyed the experiment, and the sight of all those rows of abundant greens in the late fall and early winter.

Frosty Mizuna in our Eat-All Greens in December.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Ice for lettuce seed; Mistake in my book; fall sowings

Ice cubes over newly sown lettuce seed, to help germination in hot weather.
Photo Bell Oaks

The photo above shows our strategy for germinating lettuce seed when the soil is too hot (above about 84F (29C). First I shade the soil for several days to cool it, and I keep it moist. Then I sow late in the day, cover the seeds with soil, tamp down, water with fresh-drawn cold water, set out ice cubes along the rows, cover with shadecloth and retire for a relaxing cup of tea. One tray of ice cubes is enough for a 4ft (1.2 m) row.

—————————————–

I just got this email pointing out a mistake in Sustainable Market Farming. So get a red pen and fix your copy today! An observant reader said:

“Hi! I just read the section on potatoes in your book “Sustainable Market Farming” and was a bit confused because of the yield numbers on page 376. You write “Yields are likely to be 150 lbs/ac (168 kg/ha); 200 lbs/ac (224 kg/ha) is a good yield”.

I’m currently working on a farm where we get 200-250kg of potatoes from one 100m row, that’s the number you say is a good yield per hectare… And I don’t even think our yield is particularly good, because there was a lot of damage in the potatoes (green ones, wireworm, slugs, scab). So I guess your numbers are just a mistake?”

Yes, my mistake indeed! On page 45, I have the (better!) info that potatoes can yield at least 110 pounds/100 feet, or 49.9 kg/30m. I think I probably meant to write on page 376, that a low yield could be 150 pounds/100ft, which is equivalent to 11 tons/acre. In the metric system, that’s 223 kg/100m, or 24.4 tons/ha. Other sources suggest average yields could be almost twice this. And good yields, even 4 times the low numbers.

So it should say

“Yields are likely to be 11 tons/ac (24.4 tons/ha); 22 tons/ac (48.8 tons/ha) is a good yield”

That’s US tons of 2000 pounds, metric tons of 1000 kg. Or for a smaller scale, probably closer to what most of us are growing,

“Yields are likely to be 150 lbs/100ft (223 kg/100m); 200 lbs/100 ft (300 kg/100m) is a good yield”

I hope I’ve got all the conversions right. Let me know if I haven’t!

While researching yield figures, I found an interesting publication, The Potato Association of America, Commercial Potato Production in North America 2010.

Potato harvesting

The month of August is when we establish crops that will feed us in the fall and winter.

We sowed carrots August 8 and are now hoeing them and hand-weeding and thinning. We flamed these carrots on day 4 after sowing, because we have found that carrots can emerge on day 5 when it is as warm it can be in August. The idea is to flame the beds the day before the carrots are due to emerge. Flame-weeding is a great way to get rid of millions of fast-growing weeds and leave the field free for the slow-growing carrots. We still have to weed and thin once or twice as the carrots (and weeds) grow, but it is much easier to see the carrots, and they grow better if the first flush of weeds has been flamed off.

Some years all goes smoothly, and some years not! This year we had two snags. One is that the carrots were mistakenly sowed an inch deep, instead of near the surface. Of course, this delays emergence, so by the time the carrots made it through that inch of soil, many new weeds had sprung up too. The second challenge was that our well pump has not been working right, and we have not had enough irrigation water. And until this past week, we had a very hot dry spell.

Looking forward to lush beds of fall carrots.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

But now we are making forward progress. Twin Oaks can eat 30+ bags (50 lbs, 23 kg each) of carrots during the winter, so we try really hard to grow a big crop of fall carrots.

We sowed cucumbers 8/2 and they are up well. The 8/5 beans look very good indeed.

Young bean bed.
Photo Pam Dawling

The first two beds of kale (sowed 8/8) came up well, thanks to diligent hand-watering. The second two (8/12) are also up, and it’s just a day too soon to say the third (8/17) are just as good. Sowing two beds of kale at a time is a good strategy allowing us to focus the hand watering on the not-yet-emerged beds, for best success. We try to have the pairs of beds very near each other, to make dragging the hoses easier. This year we even sowed some back-up flats of kale, because last year’s kale had such a hard time getting established. (It might have been cutworms or grasshoppers).

Young Vates kale.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

The squash was sown a little late this year (8/10 rather than 8/5) but there is still hope. Our average first frost is 10/20 (our average over the last 13 years), so with a 54 days to maturity (from direct seeding) squash like Zephyr, we reckon on sowing 68 days before that first frost – or more to allow for seasonal cooling and even an early frost. That’s 8/13 absolute last date. We’ll use rowcover once fall cools down, but we do hope for a decent yield before the plants get killed.

Our fall turnips are doing well. We sowed them 8/7 under insect netting. here you see a row of radishes squeezed in at the edge of the bed. We often do this with radishes because we only want 90ft (27 m) at once. Kale beds are another place we sometimes sow radishes. Because radishes grow so fast, they will be gone by the time the slower, bigger crops need the space. And because they don’t get tall, they can be at the edge of the beds without getting in our way as we walk along.

Young turnips with a row of radishes squeezed into the bed.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

 

Solarization and crop choices to fight nematodes

Solarizing to combat nematodes. Photo Pam Dawling

Solarization

Solarization is a method of killing pests, diseases and weed seeds near the surface of the soil by covering the soil with clear plastic for six weeks or more in hot weather. We use this method to help control nematodes in our hoophouse. Nematodes are only active in warm weather, and we have not had problems with them outdoors, but of course, it’s warmer in the hoophouse!

I’ve written before about solarization to fight nematodes in our hoophouse.

In my Book Review: The Organic No-Till Farming Revolution: High Production Methods for Small-Scale Farmers, Andrew Mefferd, I wrote a little about solarizing:

“Solarization uses clear plastic (old hoophouse plastic is ideal). In a summer hoophouse, solarization can be as quick as 24 hours, Andrew says. When we’ve done this, one of our goals was to kill nematodes and fungal diseases, not just weeds, so we waited a few weeks. Outdoors it takes several weeks. You can see when the weeds are dead. Bryan O’Hara poked a thermometer probe through solarization plastic and found a 50F degree (28C) difference between the outside air and the soil immediately under the plastic; a 10F (6C) difference at 1″ (2.5 cm) deep and little temperature gain lower than that. Solarization does not kill all the soil life!”

Extension offers Solarization and Tarping for Weed Management on Organic Vegetable Farms in the Northeast USA which can, of course, be modified for those of us in other regions.

Solarizing to combat nematodes: Step on a spade to push the plastic down into a slot in the soil.
Photo Pam Dawling

Nematodes

I’ve written here before about our struggles with root knot nematodes in our hoophouse, and you can read everything I know about nematodes in the Year-Round Hoophouse.

My article on nematodes in Growing for Market  in November 2014 describes our discovery of the beasties and our first attempts to deal with them.

My most thorough blogpost about nematodes was for Mother Earth News  Managing Nematodes in the Hoophouse.

Cucumber roots with nematodes (see circles).
Photo Pam Dawling

My post Good news – great hoeing weather! Bad news – more nematodes in the hoophouse August 2014 includes a photo of our first attempt at solarizing – a  bit of a How Not To!

There is info on dealing with nematodes from Garry Ross in Hawaii, where nematodes are a fact of daily life, in my post Cold weather, snow, thinking about nematodes from February 2015.

Cover Crop Choices

French marigolds and sesame to deter Root Knot nematodes in our hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling

In June this year I wrote about using marigolds, sesame, Iron and Clay cowpeas as nematode resistant cover crops. We’ve also used winter wheat, and white lupins. See Our Organic Integrated Pest Management . Other cover crops that suppress nematodes include some other OP French marigold varieties (but avoid Tangerine Gem or hybrid marigolds); chrysanthemum; black-eyed Susan; gaillardia (blanket flower, Indian blanket); oats; sesame/millet mix. We decided against sorghum-sudangrass (too big), winter rye (harder than wheat to incorporate by hand), bahiagrass, Bermuda grass (both invasive), castor bean and Crotolaria (sunnhemp) (both poisonous, although newer varieties of Crotolaria have lower toxin levels, and I’ve been rethinking my opposition to using that), partridge pea, California poppy (both require at least one full year of growth) and some obscure vetches that weren’t available locally. We might have included Pacific Gold mustard (B. juncea), if we’d found it in time. Don’t confuse this with Ida Gold Mustard, which kills weeds, and is susceptible to nematodes.

Food Crop Choices

 This list starts with the crops most resistant to Root Know Nematodes and ends with the most susceptible. I’ve included some “bookmarks” between categories, but it can also be read as a continuous list:

Scallions in our hoophouse in late November.
Photo Pam Dawling

Most resistant

Strawberries

Rhubarb

Onion (? not certain)

Corn

West Indian Gherkins

Horseradish

Asparagus

Jerusalem Artichokes

Globe Artichokes

Radishes in our hoophouse in February.
Photo Pam Dawling

Fairly Resistant

Ground Cherry

Some Sweet Potato varieties

Radishes (? not certain)

Rutabagas

Garlic, Leeks, Chives

Cress

Brassica juncea mustards

Brassica rapa var. japonica greens (? Uncertain)

Broccoli, Kale, Collards, Brussels Sprouts

Red Russian kale from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange in our hoophouse in March.
Photo Pam Dawling

Somewhat Susceptible:

Fall Turnips

Peas

Fall Spinach

Swiss Chard

Parsnips

New Zealand Spinach

Very Susceptible:

Lettuce

Cabbage

Cucumbers, Muskmelons, Watermelons, Squash, Pumpkins

Beans, Fava Beans, Soybeans

Okra

Beets

Carrots, Celery

Tomatoes, Eggplant, Peppers, Potatoes, Peanuts

Ruby Streaks, Golden Frills, Scarlet Frills juncea mustards, very resistant to root-knit nematodes.
Photo Pam Dawling

Nematode-resistant winter greens

 We came up with a collection of nematode-resistant winter greens, including radishes, Russian kales, Brassica juncea mustards (mostly salad greens like Ruby Streaks, Golden Frills, Scarlet Frills), and Brassica rapa var. japonica greens, mizuna and Yukina Savoy. We have since learned that Yukina Savoy is a Brassica rapa, not B. juncea as we thought, and that mizuna is Brassica rapa var. japonica with a less certain resistance, or perhaps Brassica rapa var. niposinica, or perhaps B.juncea after all (integrifolia type). We also grow scallions in the nematode-infested areas. Now I am looking for more nematode-resistant cold-weather greens.

Green mizuna in our hoophouse in November.
Photo Pam Dawling

This Year

After the winter greens this spring, we transplanted two beds of tomatoes, one each of peppers, squash and cucumbers, and put two beds into Iron and Clay cowpeas. The eastern ends where we had found evidence of nematodes, we transplanted French marigolds and sesame as stronger fighting forces.

When we pulled up the squash and cucumbers  we found no sign of nematodes on the roots. One of the tomato beds produced no sign either, but the other one did. Our first response was to sow Iron and Clay cowpeas instead of the planned soybeans, but before the plants were even 2” (5 cm) high, we decided to solarize that whole bed. We now have small patches of nematode infestation in almost every bed, calling for a more nimble approach to crop planning.

Brassica juncea mustards to try

According to Wikipedia, Brassica juncea cultivars can be divided into four major subgroups: integrifolia, juncea, napiformis, and tsatsai.  I did some searching for more B. juncea, especially large leafed ones. Some promising looking crops include these:

“Green-in-Snow” mustard, Serifon gai choi type Chinese Mustard, Suehlihung.

Serifon (Suehlihung, Green-in-Snow) mustard. Kitazawa Seeds

“Red-in-Snow” mustard (sorry, no details)

Osaka Purple Mustard. Fedco Seeds

Giant Red, Osaka Purple, Southern Giant Curled Mustards, all quite pungent

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horned Mustard. Wild Garden Seeds

Horned Mustard

 

 

 

Miike Giant mustard. Kitazawa Seeds

Miike Giant

 

 

 

 

Hatakena Mustard. Kitazawa Seeds

 

Hatakena

Yanagawa Takana.
Kitazawa Seeds

 

 

 

 

 

Yanagawa Takana broad leaved mustard

 

 

 

Wasabina baby leaf mustard (wasabi flavor). Kitazawa Seeds

 

Wasabina

Cooking Greens in August

 

The vine tips of sweet potatoes make good summer cooking greens.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Cooking Greens to Harvest in Central Virginia in August

Chard leaves and sweet potato vine tips can be harvested here all month. It really isn’t the season for new cooking greens. We have cabbage in storage, to get us through the “dead center” of the summer, until we can start the fall green harvests. In late August we can start to harvest senposai, turnip thinnings, Yukina savoy, komatsuna, Maruba Santoh, pak choy, Tokyo Bekana. Turnip thinnings can make a tasty dish, if the small plants with marble-sized turnips are cooked together with their attached tops. Wash well, of course.

If we had grown them, we could harvest molokhia (Egyptian spinach, related to okra), manihot (aibika, also related to okra), and okra leaves themselves, if the Japanese beetles have left enough! See the special topic below for more on these.

Cooking Greens to Sow in Central Virginia in August

Fall broccoli patch.
Photo Kati Falger

We sow our fall brassicas weekly throughout late June and July – see the Special Topic for June for all the details. If we have had big trouble, we might need to resow some broccoli, cabbage, or Asian greens in August, but hopefully not. If we do need to resow this late, we choose only the fast maturing varieties, to make up for lost time.

Although sowing the fall greens in nursery seedbeds comes to an end, we are not slacking. August is our month to establish 6 beds of Vates kale. We use ProtekNet against flea beetles. Our method is a hybrid between direct sowing and transplanting. With over 2160 row ft (660m) to establish in the sometimes brutally hot and dry conditions, we would not want to transplant this number of plants. Direct sowing all at once would be impossible for us to keep sufficiently watered. We focus on two neighboring beds (720 row ft, 220m) at one time. We direct sow the two beds, cover with netting, and water by hand every day. In 4 days the seedlings will have emerged, and they can survive on less than daily watering after 6 days. So every 6 days we sow two beds. Our dates are August 4, 10, and 16. Sometimes we sow by hand, sometimes with the EarthWay seeder, with plate 1002-24. Our last date for this round of sowings is September 7.

On August 20 we revisit the first two beds and resow if the survival rate is really poor, or we plan to move plants around to fill gaps, if there are not too many. On August 24 we revisit the second two beds and resow sections if needed. On August 28 we revisit the last pair of beds sown. Our last date for resows is September 15. We only grow one variety outdoors, and we can use plants from any of the beds to fill out any other. We tackle this task when the plants are about 3-4 weeks old, in late August and early September. We eat the extra plants.

Vates kale.
Photo Nina Gentle

We grow Vates kale, a very cold-hardy dwarf Scotch curled type. I’d love to find a bigger equally-hardy curled variety, but I have not found any. We don’t rowcover our outdoor kale, so it needs to be very hardy. We tried rowcover one year, but it was a bother to deal with, and fibers of the rowcover caught in the curly leaves and we were not appreciated by the cooks.

For the second pair of beds, we often repurpose the first of our brassica seedling beds, as the broccoli, cabbage and Asian greens are all planted by then, the bed has clean soil, and netting and sticks at the ready.

Thinned turnip seedlings.
Photo Pam Dawling

We sow turnips from early August to mid-September, and beets from early August to late August, for both roots and greens. It is hard to get beets germinated in hot soil, but if you delay, they don’t have time to grow big roots before the cold weather. You can sow beets dry or presoak 1-2 hours (not longer, and not in too much water, as they easily drown); sow 1/2″-1″(1-2.5cm) deep, tamp the soil, keep the surface damp, water daily for the 4-6 days they take to emerge. We use netting for turnips, but not for beets, unless the grasshoppers are bad.

Young beets.
Photo Pam Dawling

It’s also possible in warmer areas to sow Swiss chard or leaf beet for a fall crop. This is a useful Plan B if some other crops have failed. The last planting date is ten weeks before frost. Our average first frost here is October 20. This is an average over the past 13 years. We can only sow chard until August 11 or so. It’s not that the first frost will kill the chard, far from it, but the frost date is an indicator of when growth starts to slow down.

Cooking Greens to Transplant in Central Virginia in August

Morris Heading collards.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

June is the time to prepare a plot for the fall broccoli and cabbage. July and August are the time for transplanting them. See the July cooking greens post for details of how we tackle this big transplanting job. In early August (if not done in late July) we transplant two beds of collards. By late August we want to really finish transplanting the fall broccoli, cabbage, and the kale from the August 4 sowing.

In week 7 of our fall greens schedule (the first week of August): We transplant week 4 sowings of senposai, Yukina Savoy, and anything we resowed in week 4. We also fill any gaps in week 4 transplantings (= week 1 sowings). Cover: hoop and net or rowcover.

In weeks 8 & 9 (the second and third weeks of August): We transplant anything we didn’t keep up with, and replacements in weeks 5 and 6 transplantings (weeks 2 & 3 sowings), Cover: hoop and net or rowcover.

Other Cooking Greens Tasks in Central Virginia in August

Broccoli undersown with clover.
Photo Nina Gentle

If things are on schedule and we haven’t needed to replace many casualties in the big brassica patch, we roll and store the covers, wheelhoe or till between the rows and weed. Then we undersow with a broadcast mix of mammoth red clover, white Ladino clover, and crimson clover. This will become our all-year green fallow next year.

August is our worst month for grasshoppers and crickets, so we watch for them and either use netting, or postpone sowings until the end of August.

To improve germination next month, we put spinach seeds in the freezer now, for at least two weeks.

No visible brassicas month comes to an end. To disrupt the lifecycle of the voracious harlequin bugs, we have only netted brassicas in our gardens from early July, when the last of our spring brassica crops get mowed down and disked in, and we sow seedling brassica crops under netting. When we transplant the young brassicas, we cover those all with netting or rowcover for a few weeks.

Special Cooking Greens Topic for August: More Unusual Hot Weather Cooking Greens

See Cooking Greens in July for details about the chenopods – amaranths, Aztec spinach, orach, Good King Henry, Magenta Lambsquarters, strawberry beet and also celosia. Many of these can be sown again in August to provide a succession of tender young greens. Here are some other hot weather greens. Like July’s unusual cooking greens, all the following are warm weather crops, so don’t try to grow these in early spring or into late fall. If sown in August, they can follow an earlier crop such as lettuce, peas, or early sowings of beans, squash or cucumbers.

Sweet Potato Leaves, Ipomoea batatas

Plant sweet potatoes for a fall root harvest, and get the bonus greens crop all summer! You can harvest the leaves and young shoots for cooking greens at any time during growth (just don’t take too much at once). For cooking ideas, find Water Spinach recipes and substitute sweet potato shoots. Chili and shrimp or peanut sauce feature in many recipes.

Water Spinach, Ipomoea aquatica; aka Kang Kong, Ong Choy, Phak Bung.

This tropical, semi-aquatic plant is cultivated for its tender shoots and leaves. It is easy to start from seed or you can root cuttings (roots show in 2-3 days) from bunches bought at an Asian supermarket. The long stems will readily root from the nodes. The leaves are quite large: 2”-6” by 1”-3” (5-15 by 2.5-7.5 cm). The tender shoots are cooked along with the leaves. The flowers look just like sweet potato flowers.  It is a USDA Class A noxious weed in Hawai’i, Florida and California, where it has escaped into the wild. Check your state regulations, and grow this in some sort of container to be sure.  A safer bet is to eat sweet potato greens instead.

New Zealand Spinach (Tetragonia expansa, Tetragonia tetragonioides)

New Zealand Spinach tolerates heat and drought beautifully. It is salt-tolerant and will even grow in sand. This sprawling bushy plant with small, succulent, triangular leaves is generally free of pests. The flavor is very mild, not particularly like spinach, despite the name.

Soak the seed for 4-24 hours before planting to speed germination – it can take 8 weeks to emerge. Direct-sow from mid to late spring (bean-planting time), or sow indoors about 6 weeks before last frost. It takes 65-75 days to maturity. Thin to at least 6” (15 cm) apart. It needs hot weather to really get going.

Regular trimming encourages lush growth. Use scissors to harvest the shoot tips. Picking the individual triangular leaves would be tedious, as they are fairly small.

Like true spinach, Tetragonia leaves contain oxalic acid, so should be eaten in moderation, mixed with other greens.

It can become invasive as it sets seed readily. This happened to me the first year I grew it – I thought some self-sowing would be a good thing, but I seriously under-estimated both the number of seedlings I’d get and the distance the seeds could ping.

Red Malabar Spinach.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
Malabar Spinach (Basella alba, Basella rubra)

This tropical plant is from Asia and Africa.. The gorgeous twining vines are very tall, so they need to be trellised or caged, which has the bonus of keeping the leaves clean. One technique is to plant them on the pea trellises and let them take over as the peas finish. There is a green-leaved Malabar spinach with red stems, but the red is exceptionally beautiful, so I recommend that one. This crop also does well in partial shade.

The crinkled heart-shaped leaves look like spinach, although more crisp, glossy, and slightly succulent. They have a flavor similar to beet greens. They stay mild and maintain healthy growth all summer. Bees love the blossoms.

Sow in late spring, when it’s warm enough for beans. Germination is slow – even at their preferred temperature of 70-80°F (21-27°C) the seeds can take 10-14 days. Soaking the seed in warm water before sowing may help. You could start them indoors and transplant at 3-6 weeks old, or older, as much as 8” (20 cm) tall. Plant or thin to at least 6” (15 cm) apart and, to promote a more branched plant, pinch out the central shoot after the second set of leaves.

The plants need 60-90 days to maturity, and then will produce an abundance of moderately small leaves all summer, until cut down by the slightest frost. Harvest individual leaves as needed, or cut the vine tips to use as cooking greens. (Young leaves can be added to salad mixes.) Lop the vines when they are as tall as you want to deal with – they will regrow even if severely cut back.

The taste is slightly seaweedy (it’s also known as “land kelp”), and the texture is somewhat mucilaginous in the way that okra is. It can be eaten raw if you like the chewy texture. It is excellent for stir-fries or for thickening summer soups and stews. William Woys Weaver reports that it cooks beautifully in a microwave, but on a hot day eat the refreshing leaves raw. The leaves store for up to two weeks in the refrigerator.

This crop is pest-free, but watch out for the staining properties of the black berries (good for dying fabric). Malabar spinach does self-sow, but this is only likely to be a problem for those in tropical climates

Okra leaves
Yes, okra ;eaves are edible.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

Yes, okra leaves are edible. See Chris Smith’s amazing book The Whole Okra

Egyptian Spinach, Corchorus olitorius (Jute, related to okra)

Aka Melo Khiya,  Molokheiya, Molokhia and similar attempts to render the Arabic name in our alphabet. This  Arabic summer cooking green grows well in Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, Texas and everywhere with hot summers.

This versatile, continuous-harvest vegetable can survive both dry and wet conditions in warm or hot weather. GrowerJim has good details.

Only the small leaves are cooked and eaten. The dried leaves can be used to thicken soups or for tea. It’s not a vegetable to be eaten alone in big cooked heaps – it’s just too mucilaginous.

Jute fiber is extracted from the mature plants, suggesting a) don’t try to eat over-mature plants, and b) paper-making and various fiber arts could be in your future.

Depending on your climate and preferences, you can direct sow fairly heavily and thin, or start seeds in flats and transplant 12″ (30 cm) apart in all directions. Plant after danger of frost is past and the soil is warming steadily. Egyptian Spinach likes full sun, warm to hot weather and steady moisture – mulch will help keep the soil moist.

It takes 70 days to maturity, then holds well in the field, providing several cuttings. If you prefer to harvest the whole plant, succession-sow for future supplies. Continue to give compost or nutrients throughout the season, to encourage tender new growth.

It grows 2’-3′ (60-90 cm) tall or more, and then bears yellow flowers if you don’t keep it clipped back. The flowers are followed by seed pods which are edible and tasty when young, with more flavor than the leaves.

The mature seeds can be saved for replanting. Seed is available from Sandhill Preservation and  Bountiful Gardens (who reassure buyers that the seed is naturally green in color and is not treated.)

Manihot (aibika, Sunset hibiscus, also related to okra) Abelmoschus manihot – (L.)Medik.

It is a hardy perennial in US zones 8-11. Green Harvest has growing information. Plants for a Future also. Seeds are sold by Monticello as an ornamental, but Floral Encounters say: “However the importance of this plant is that it is one of the world’s most nutritious leafy vegetables because of its high protein content.”

Squash leaves and shoots, Cucurbita spp.

If your squash are being too rambunctious, or you are thinning a row a bit late and have sizeable plants, consider a harvest of vine tips and leaves. Or grow some just for this purpose, if you need a quick-growing summer green with novelty appeal. Stir-fry or gently braise – good with eggs for breakfast, says Ira Wallace at Southern Exposure Seed Exchange.

Blackeye peas and other crowder peas:

The tips and leaves are edible. Garden Betty writes about many of these less usual greens, from a salad perspective, in Summer-Lovin’ Salad Greens

 

Sweet corn, potatoes and okra

Our first sweet corn of the season (Bodacious).
Photo Pam Dawling

Sweet Corn

We sowed our first sweet corn on 4/18, eight days earlier than usual this year, because we had auspicious weather. We look at the leaves of the white oaks to decide when it is warm enough for corn planting. The oak leaves should be as big as squirrel’s ears. Phenology signs like this are especially useful when the weather is extremely variable, which we are getting more of as climate disruption has got us in its grip.

Our first sweet corn sowing is always a bit of a risk. In fact we often prepare for this by sowing some corn seeds in styrofoam Speedling flats, the same day we sow the first corn planting outdoors. Read more about this seedling technique and transplanting corn.

Our third planting of sweet corn on the left, fourth in the middle, 5th (barely emerging) on the right.
Photo Pam Dawling

We’ve been harvesting sweet corn since July 2, which is two days earlier than our target start date, so we’re very happy. Initially, of course, we got smaller amounts, but we are now harvesting three times a week and getting good amounts. We are back up to 6 sowings this year, after we had to cut back for a couple of years. For a hundred people we sow an average of 1100 ft (335m) each time we plant, with each planting intended to last us 15 days (7 or 8 pickings). Our goal is sweet corn from July 4 to mid-October (our average first frost is October 20, a 13 year average from our own records).

Three varieties of sweet corn in one planting. On the left Bodacious; in the middle, red-flowered Kandy Korn; on the right, Silver Queen not yet fully grown.
Photo Kathryn Simmons

Each sowing includes several varieties (with different numbers of days to maturity) on the same day, so a planting will give us at least two weeks of delicious corn. In this photo from a previous year, you can see (from left to right): later-maturing Silver Queen, not yet at full height; red-flowered Kandy Korn; fast-maturing shorter Bodacious. Each plant is only going to provide two or three ears, so to have enough, and to have a continuous supply, it is necessary to plan ahead. See the Succession Planting section ahead.

Sowing sweet corn

We have switched to sowing corn with the EarthWay seeder, with a homemade next-row marker. This is much quicker than sowing by hand, but does rely on providing overhead irrigation consistently until the seedlings emerge. Another trade-off is that we get more weeds germinating in the (watered) aisles than we did when we only watered the furrows at planting time. Drip irrigation would be another approach.  So far we have not lost corn to crows, which was the reason we took to the handsowing-under-ropes method some 20 years ago. Back then we also sowed our fist corn with a tractor seeder, but we had to follow that with putting up ropes, or we lost it all to birds. Details of our hand-sowing method are in this post from May 2016.

Staying on top of weeds in the sweet corn

Once we get to late June, more of our time in the garden is taken up by harvesting (a sign of success), leaving less time for weeding. We have a system I like that helps us stay on top of sweet corn weeds. Each time we sow sweet corn, we hoe the previous planting (about two weeks old), thin the plants to one every 8″-12″ (20-30cm) in the row, and wheel hoe or till between the rows. We have two Valley Oak wheel hoes that we really like. The handle height is adjustable and they are available with different width hoes (and other attachments). Our tiller is a BCS 732 from Earth Tools BCS

Don’t let this happen to you! Weedy young corn.
Photo by Bridget Aleshire

We also hoe the rows of the corn planting before that one (about 4 weeks old), and till between those rows and broadcast soybeans (which we till in lightly). Soybeans will grow in partial shade, handle the foot traffic of harvesting, and provide some nitrogen for the soil. For the last corn of the season, we undersow with a mix of soy and oats. After the harvest ends, we leave the patch alone, and the oats survive the first frosts (which kill the corn and the soy) and go on to be our winter cover crop for that plot. When it gets cold enough, the oats do die, and the plot becomes an easy one to bush hog and disk in the early spring for our March-planted potato crop. I like that opportunity to eliminate one round of disking, and to get a winter-killed cover crop established

As we harvest corn we pull out any pigweed that has somehow survived our earlier efforts. I learned at a Sustainable Weed Management workshop, that pigweed puts out its seeds in one big bang at the end, so pulling up huge pigweed is worthwhile, if it hasn’t yet seeded. (Actually you can see it for yourself, but before the workshop I hadn’t noticed!) Our soil has improved over the years, so it is now possible to uproot 5ft (1.5 m) pigweeds. Sometimes we have to hold the corn plant down with our feet, but we do almost always succeed in getting the weeds out, without damaging the corn.

Succession Planting for Sweet Corn

In Sustainable Market Farming I have a chapter on succession planting, and my slideshow on Succession Planting is one of my most popular ones. You can watch it right here.

I posted on Mother Earth News Organic Gardening blog about Growing Sweet Corn for the Whole Summer. You can read it here:

Growing Sweet Corn for the Whole Summer – Organic Gardening

Our sweet corn sowing dates and harvests from those plantings are

  1. 4/26, harvest 7/9 (with a few ears from 7/4)
  2. 5/19, harvest 7/24
  3. 6/6, harvest 8/8
  4. 6/24, harvest 8/23
  5. 7/7, harvest 9/7
  6. 7/16, harvest 9/22

Avoid mixing types of corn.

There’s a confusing aspect of hybrid corn varieties: There are several genotypes, and if you inadvertently plant a mixture of different types, it can lead to starchy unpleasant-flavored corn. Also don’t plant Indian corn, popcorn or any kind of flint or dent corn within 600′ (180 m) of your sweet corn. For this reason we grow only sweet corn in our garden. Ignore those cryptic catalog notes at your peril!

Dealing with raccoons, skunks and curious cats in the corn

We have trapped (and then killed) raccoons in our corn most years, and the past few years we’ve tried deterring them with nightly radio broadcasts. We have the large live mammal traps, and we found for raccoons, we needed to stake the trap down to the ground. I followed suggestions from Joanna Reuter of Chert Hollow Farm, staking the traps down and smearing peanut butter high on the stake in the back of the cage. Well, the first morning I caught a small, very white skunk! I let it out carefully. The next morning I caught the same skunk again. And the third morning, again. You can read more about how I let the skunks out. I’ve also caught some of our cats by accident.

Raccoons don’t seem to like Silver Queen as much as Kandy Korn, maybe because the husks are tighter and harder to rip off. Actually I like Kandy Korn better than Silver Queen too.

Okra

Cow Horn okra flower and pod.
Photo Pam Dawling

We have started harvesting our okra. It’s a little later than it might have been because we had to replant. The first planting had leggy seedlings due to not enough light soon enough in their lives. Then we planted it out with novice helpers, and they didn’t plant them deep enough. The feeble stems couldn’t take it. We made an attempt to hill them up to give more protection to the stems. Another mistake we made was over-watering. When we pulled up some of the dead plants for our postmortem, they reminded me of retted flax stems – the fibers were still there, with the soft tissue rotted away. This is why I think the problem is that we over watered rather than under-watered.

This year we are trying Carmine Splendor, a red okra from Johnny’s, as well as our usual favorite Cow Horn from Southern Exposure.

Cow Horn okra pods.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

We like Cow Horn for its tall plants, high productivity and the fact that the pods can get relatively large without getting fibrous. They are still tender at 5-6″, which is the size we used to harvest at. Some years we have attached a card to the handles of the pruners we use for this job, with a life-size drawing of a 5″ pod. This helps new crew get it right.

We do find it very hard to convince our cooks that we have specially chosen this “commune-friendly” variety so they don’t have to deal with fiddly little okra pods when cooking for 100. We’ve had to compromise and harvest at 4″. Hence the venturing-out to another variety, accepting people are hard to convince about Cow Horn!

We grow a 90′ row, with plants about 18″ apart in the row. This is enough for the hundred of us (some people never eat okra despite the cooks’ best efforts!)

Carmine Splendot okra plant.
Photo Pam Dawling

Carmine Splendor is a 51 day (from transplanting) F1 hybrid, with sturdy 5-sided pods that are deep red when small. I haven’t tasted them yet.

Potatoes

June-planted potatoes emerging from mulch in mid-July.
photo Pam Dawling

Our June-planted potatoes are starting to come up through the hay mulch, and we need to walk through and free the trapped shoots. This means we walk through investigating the spots where we expect there to be a potato plant but we don’t see one. If we find a trapped shoot, we open up the mulch to let the plant see the light. We do this same job with garlic in late November or early December.

This week we are harvesting our March planted potatoes. I just dug 30lbs for tonight’s dinner. Yes, lots of diners! The rest of the crop will be harvested using a digging machine on Thursday.

We harvested our March-planted potatoes 21 days ago, and we are in the process of sorting them and managing conditions in our root cellar to cure the potatoes and help them store well.

Crates of potatoes in our root cellar.
Photo Nina Gentle
Click here for our Root Cellar Warden” instructions from last year.

Dormancy Requirements of Potatoes

We are researching the dormancy requirements of potatoes in an effort to store ours so they don’t sprout when we don’t want them to!

What I know so far about dormancy is that potatoes need a dormancy period of 4-8 weeks after harvest before they will sprout. So if you plan to dig up an early crop and immediately replant some of the potatoes for a later crop, take this into account. Get around this problem by refrigerating them for 16 days, then chitting them in the light for 2 weeks. The company of apples, bananas or onions will help them sprout by emitting ethylene.

To avoid sprouting, keep the potatoes below 50F (10C) once they are more than a month from harvest, avoid excess moisture, and avoid “physiological aging” of the potatoes, caused by stressing them with fluctuating temperatures, among other things.

Tobacco Hornworm pupa

Just had to add this, which I dug up yesterday. These brutes are about 2″ (5 cm) long. They are heavy and they move slightly. Also, check out the comments on the last post and be sure to see SESE’s Ken Bezilla’s Instagram of a hornworm in black light.

This is the pupa of the tobacco hornworm.
Photo Pam Dawling

Dealing with Hornworms on Tomatoes

 

A large tobacco hornworm. Note the fake eyes near the horn at the tail end.
Photo Pam Dawling

Two summers ago, I wrote about Hunting Hornworms on Tomato Plants.

Here we are in July again, and here are the hornworms again! Yesterday, in two 80 ft (24.4 m) rows of tomatoes, I found 53 inches (1.35m) of hornworms! There were 24, varying in length from 1” (2.5 cm) to 4” (10 cm). Today I found even more: 42 caterpillars totaling 85” (2.2m)! They are stripping leaves and munching on the green fruit.

In our hornworm photos, you might notice ours are not the same as yours. Ours are tobacco hornworms, not tomato hornworms, but both are bad news and both attack tomato plants. Before Twin Oaks Community started here in 1967, the land was a tobacco farm. Tobacco hornworms have a red (not black) horn, and diagonal white lines, not arrowhead vees.

Hawk moth (mother of hornworms) caught in a web of a zipper spider. Photo Pam Dawling

Hornworms hatch from eggs laid by the night-flying Carolina sphinx moth or  Tobacco hawk moth. This year I did catch one of the moths, and kill it, but we still have plenty of caterpillars. The moths hatch from strange coppery pupae with pipes or spouts attached, which overwinter in the soil. Even our most vigilant caterpillar-hunting seems to miss some, which then drop to the ground to pupate. Another way to break the lifecycle is to close the hoophouse at dusk every night (and open it promptly every morning before it gets too hot), but we’ve decided not to go that route.

Hornworm with parasitic wasp pupae.
Photo Pam Dawling

Hornworms often get parasitized outdoors by a tiny braconid wasp that lays eggs in the backs of the caterpillars. The larvae develop inside the caterpillar and then the pupae develop as white rice-grain-like cocoons sticking out of the back of the hornworm. Usually our friend the parasitic wasp doesn’t come inside the hoophouse and to get parasites into the hoophouse hornworms we have to bring in parasitized hornworms from outdoors. This doesn’t work so well, because the hoophouse tomatoes are a month earlier than the outdoor ones, and the hornworm cycle is well underway in the hoophouse by the time the parasitic wasps are in action outdoors. This year we’ve found several parasitized hornworms indoors in the past few days, and we are very happy.

Hornworms have stripped these tomato leaves.
Photo Pam Dawling

Meanwhile, we are conducting hunting raids every morning. To find where the hornworms are working, first look at the upper leaves of the tomatoes. If they are stripped bare down to the ribs, that’s a good place to look. Hornworms only like the tender upper leaves. If there are intact newer younger leaves, it might mean there was a hornworm, but it’s been removed already, and the plant is recovering. Another sign of hornworms in the area is chewed fruit. Another sign is “pineapple poop” – miniature brown pineapples or hand grenades. If you see fresh poop, look directly upwards – remember the law of gravity. The size of the poop is, naturally enough, in proportion to the size of the hornworm.

Hornworm poop on a tomato.
Photo Pam Dawling
Evidence of hornworms.
Photo Pam Dawling

Having determined there is a hornworm in the vicinity, the next task is to find it. You’d think it would be easy – a big striped caterpillar like that. Not so! They are the exact same shade of green as tomato leaves. Hornworms can look remarkably similar to curled tomato leaves. The white stripes mimic the veins on the undersides of the leaves.

When I find some signs, I gaze at the area, looking for discrepancies in the pattern – bare stems with lumps on them. Usually the caterpillar is on the underside of a chewed stem, and often (but not always) they have their heads raised. When you find one, get a firm grip, pull it off the plant (they have strong legs which hold on tight), drop it on the ground and stomp on it. The skins are quite thick.

Found it! Hornworm on a tomato leaf.
Photo Pam Dawling

If I still can’t see the worm, I stand still and sway a bit from side to side, viewing the plant from different perspectives. It helps if the top of the plant is back-lit, but I do always check both sides of the row, no matter where the sun is. Knowing the signs of hornworm grazing can save you time looking everywhere. Focus your attention on where you are most likely to find them, and you will get the most success in the least time.

A large hornworm eating a tomato.
Photo Pam Dawling

Bt is an organically-approved pesticide spray that kills small caterpillars, without killing other insects. I don’t expect it to work on big hornworms. Hunting seems to be the way to go!

Our goal – tasty ripe tomatoes! These are Five Star Grape.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cooking Greens in July

 

Early spring cabbage with alyssum to attract beneficial insects.
Photo Pam Dawling

Here in central Virginia in July, we have chard and spring cabbage for cooking greens, the last broccoli, and some collards early in the month.

Sowing the fall greens is well underway. We also start transplanting cooking greens this month – it’s very hot, but this is when we need to do it, to have the crops mature before it gets too cold for them.

Cooking Greens to Harvest in Central Virginia in July

See June’s Cooking Greens post for more about chard, a biennial that will not bolt in the summer heat. We can eat it whenever we like; it is always there, always harvestable, from late May to late December. It’s so easy to care for, and nothing bad happens if we ignore it. Some years it even survives our winters.

Our broccoli comes to an end in early July, when it gets bitter, and has only tiny side-shoots left. We are harvesting our cabbage. We sowed early cabbage in our greenhouse in late January and transplanted it around March 10. We sowed our main-crop cabbage February 7 and transplanted around April 1. In our early cabbage, we grew Farao (F1, 60d, 3lbs, 1.5 kg), Early Jersey Wakefield, (OP, 63d, 2-3lbs, -1.5 kg)), and flat, mid-sized, Tendersweet (F1 71d). For the maincrop, we have more Farao and Early Jersey Wakefield, along with Red Express, Kaitlin and Tribute.

A cabbage, with curled back leaf on the head, showing maturity.
Photo Bridget Aleshire

We store cabbage beyond our immediate needs in net bags in the refrigerator. None of these spring varieties are long-storers, but they should see us through the summer until mid-October when we have fresh outdoor fall cooking greens. We eat a 50lb (23k) bag of cabbage each week, so we aim to get 12 bags into storage, by the time the harvest ends in mid-July. Additional cabbage beyond the 12 bags (if any) gets made into sauerkraut. Our main sauerkraut making season is when we harvest the fall cabbage, which is usually a bigger planting.

That’s it for cooking greens harvests here until late August, when our fall planting of Senposai will start to yield. Some years we have sowed Tokyo Bekana or Maruba Santoh for a quick harvest. Both are very fast growing tender chartreuse (yellow-green) leafy plants that can be served chopped and lightly cooked. Tokyo Bekana a Brassica rapa chinensis type and takes 45 days to full maturity. Maruba Santoh, Brassica rapa pekinensis, is similar to Tokyo Bekana but less frilly. Fairly bolt tolerant. Only 35 days to maturity.

We have sometimes planted these for salad leaves to get us through late summer lettuce shortages. The wide white stems of the mature plant provide crunch for salads, along with the delicate leaves; or the baby leaves can be harvested. Both have a mild flavor and even so, I have been surprised that many people don’t even notice they are not eating lettuce – I suppose enough salad dressing masks all flavors!

An adolescent Tokyo bekana plant.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cooking Greens to Sow in Central Virginia in July

In May, I described our planning for our fall brassica nursery seedbeds. In June I described our schedule of weekly sowings, hooping, netting, watering and weeding. Weeks 3-6 fall in July, so now I’ll tell you about those. Weeks 7 and 8 are in August.

We sow the fall brassicas weekly throughout July – see the Special Topic for June for all the details. Each week we resow anything from the previous week that did not germinate well or became casualties. We sow these top-ups for any varieties with germination less than 80%, in a fresh row, with a new label, to avoid confusion.

In week 3 of our Fall Brassica Transplanting Schedule, (the first week of July) we sow broccoli and cabbage for the second time (insurance!), and senposai, Yukina Savoy and Chinese cabbage (if we are growing it that year) for the first time.

In week 4, (the second week of July) we sow the Chinese cabbage, senposai and Yukina Savoy for the second time, and collards for the first time. If we have to resow broccoli or cabbage, we choose the faster-maturing varieties.

In week 5 (the third week of July) we sow collards for the second time. Week 6 has no new sowings, only resows for anything that didn’t come up well..

It’s also possible in warmer areas to sow Swiss chard or leaf beet for a fall crop. This might be a useful Plan B if some other crops have failed. The last planting date is ten weeks before frost. The winter-kill temperature is 15°F (–10°C) for multi-colored chard, 12°F (-11°C) for red chard and 10°F (-12°C) for green chard (Fordhook Giant). Asian greens can also be direct-sown this month. We prefer transplants for several reasons: it’s easier to protect close-packed seedlings from pests than whole beds; it gives us extra time to grow a round of buckwheat as cover crop in the beds, and improve the organic matter and reduce weeds.

A netted bed of brassica seedlings on July 4.
Photo Pam Dawling

Cooking Greens to Transplant in Central Virginia in July

Now is the time to prepare our plot for the fall broccoli and cabbage transplanting as I described in June, mark out the rows and start transplanting.

We aim to transplant most brassicas at 4 true leaves (3-4 weeks after sowing in summer), but it often slips to 5 weeks before we get finished. I recommend transplanting crops at a younger age in hot weather than you would in spring, because larger plants can wilt from high transpiration losses. If we find ourselves transplanting older plants, we remove a couple of the older leaves to reduce these losses. It would make an interesting experiment to see which actually does best: 3 week transplants, 4 week transplants, or 5 week transplants with 2 leaves removed. Possibly the larger root mass of the older plants would be an advantage. On the other hand, old, large transplants can head prematurely, giving small heads. By that point in the year, my scientific curiosity has been fried by the sheer workload of crop production!

Week 4 (the second week of July): Transplant week 1 cabbage (especially the slower-growing “late” varieties). Cover: hoop and net or rowcover.

Week 5 (the third week of July): Transplant Chinese cabbage, Tokyo Bekana, Maruba Santoh sown in week 3. Yes they really will be big enough at 2 week-old! Transplant week 2 sowings of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and any week 2 resows. Cover: hoop and net or rowcover.

Week 6 (the fourth week of July): Transplant week 3 sowings of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, senposai, Yukina Savoy, collards; week 4 Chinese cabbage, Tokyo Bekana, Maruba Santoh, and any week 3 resows. Cover: hoop and net or rowcover.

We plan to have transplanting crews 6 days a week for an hour and a half or two hours in late afternoon or early evening, for 2-3 weeks, not counting the kale transplanting, which happens later. We water the seedlings one day and again one hour before digging them up. We plant to the base of the first true leaves, to give the stem good support, and we firm in well, so the roots have good contact with the soil, and do not die in an air pocket. After transplanting, we water generously within half an hour of planting, and again the third day, and the seventh, and then once a week. We use overhead sprinklers, and don’t easily have the option of watering every day. If you have drip irrigation, you can more easily give a little water in the middle of each day, which will help cool the roots.

A harvest cart with cabbage, kale, squash and lettuce.
Photo by Wren Vile

Other Cooking Greens Tasks for July

No visible brassicas month! In early July, the last of our spring brassica crops get harvested, and all the seedling brassica crops are under netting. There are no brassicas for the harlequin bugs to feed on and multiply in, for at least one month. We hope this will break their lifecycle. When we transplant the young brassicas, we cover those all with netting or rowcover for a few weeks.

Special Cooking Greens Topic for July: Unusual Hot Weather Cooking Greens (More in August)

All the following are warm weather crops, so wait till the soil temperature is at least 60°F (16°C) before direct sowing. If sown after mid-June, they can follow an earlier crop such as lettuce or peas.

Leaf amaranth, Amaranthus species.

Amaranths are found across the globe. There are two basic types: seed amaranths, used as a grain, and leaf amaranths. Callaloo is another name for leaf amaranth (but sometimes other crops have this name), widely used in the Caribbean. Amaranth leaves make tender and nutritious cooked greens.

This tropical annual plant thrives in really hot weather. It is a huge plant, 4’-6’ (1.2-1.8 m) tall. Some are very attractive, looking like coleus.

Carol Deppe in The Tao of Vegetable Gardening recommends All Red for a spectacularly colorful leaf, especially for salads, and Green Calaloo and Burgundy for fast-growing greens. She reports they all taste the same to her raw, and all taste the same when cooked. So choose based on your preferred color and rate of growth.

Joseph’s Coat, Amaranthus tricolor, is an eye-catching plant with red, green, and yellow leaves that may also include patches of pink, bronze, purple and brown.

William Woys Weaver (Heirloom Warm Weather Salad Greens, Mother Earth News) is a fan of ‘Bliton’ or ‘Horsetooth Amaranth’, Amaranthus lividus (Amaranthus viridis). He reports that it is the easiest and most prolific of summer greens.

In colder regions, start seed indoors, and transplant when it’s warm enough to plant beans or corn (Frequent advice for many of these hot weather greens). In warmer regions, direct sow in rows after all danger of frost is past, or broadcast with the aim of getting plants 4” (10 cm) apart. Succession-sowing in summer to provide continuous harvests.

Thin the seedlings to at least 6” (15 cm) apart (use for salads) and each time the plants reach 8-12” (20 -30 cm), harvest the top 8” (20 cm) for cooking. This pinching back will encourage bushier plants with new leaves and prevent reseeding. If grown for a single harvest, pull plants about 12” (30 cm) tall.

The crop is ready 50 days after sowing. It is tasty steamed or stir-fried like spinach. The tender leaves have a sweet nutty flavor.

When the plant is older, the stems get too tough, and then only the leaves and new shoots should be used. Some people say that amaranth should not be eaten raw, but I have failed to discover why, and others recommend it as salad.

In parts of the South, it has become a weed – “Grow responsibly,” as Barbara Pleasant says in her Mother Earth News blogpost Warm Weather Spinach Alternatives. If your farm has lots of amaranth weeds, you won’t want to risk adding another.

Red-root pigweed is an amaranth. If you have this weed and its striped flea-beetle, you will also find your edible crop full of holes and not saleable. For this reason, we don’t grow amaranth crops.

Aztec Spinach, Huauzontle, (Chenopodium berlandieri).

The chenopods (goosefoot family) are now considered a subfamily of the Amaranth family, which is related to true spinach. This plant has bigger leaves, more tender stems and better resistance to bolting than common lambsquarters, which is also edible.

Broadcast and thin to 4” apart, harvesting young leaves for salad just 30 days after sowing. When 12” tall, harvest the top 8”. This could be less than 8 weeks from sowing, depending on your climate. After the first harvest, thin the plants to 12”-15” (30-38 cm) apart, and the bushy new growth will provide leaves for future harvests. Each plant can produce a pound (0.5 kg) of colorful leaves, which steam in just one minute, and keep their color when cooked. Later, the plants with flowerbuds are cooked for breakfast. Wrap the stems with buds around a soft white cheese, dip the whole thing in batter and then fry the fritters, and simmer in a chili sauce. This may be more a springtime dish than a summer one, depending when the plants start to flower.

Hot weather increases productivity, while cooler fall weather increases the color intensity of the leaves. Succession-sowing in summer may be the solution to providing a later crop.

There is also a red version – the lower leaves turn bright red as they mature, and stay red when cooked. An attractive red and green plant, this crop can make a dramatic statement in the vegetable garden. Aztecs grew it between rows of corn. It can grow to 8’-12’ (2.4-3.7 m) tall, although it is a skinny plant, not bulky.

Magenta Magic orach.
Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

Orach (Atriplex hortensis) is another member of the Chenopod family, and comes in several attractive green, red and purple color schemes. It is also salt-tolerant. It can be tricky to transplant, needing plenty of water. The plants produce small leaves, and set seed liberally, although it is not usually invasive. Thin to 6” (15 cm) apart. Orach has a star role as elegant baby salad leaves, but it can also be grown to full size and eaten steamed. The flavor is good, and the color is retained after cooking.

Good King Henry, Chenopodium bonus-henricus, aka Mercury or Lincolnshire Spinach, has thick long-stemmed, arrow-shaped leaves. It is rich in vitamins A & C, and calcium This hardy perennial is a fairly untamed plant that bolts easily, vigorously self-seeding. So don’t expect a long picking season. Early in the year the emerging shoots may be picked and eaten like asparagus.

Magenta Lamb’s Quarters, Chenopodium album, has beautiful colorful leaves.  It has a mild flavor raw or cooked. This is basically a giant weed, which grows to 6’ (1.8 m) and re-seeds readily, so keep it from seeding if you don’t want an invasion.

Strawberry Spinach/Beetberry Greens, Chenopodium capitatum is an ancient plant from Europe. It is similar to lambsquarters in habit, but only 18” (45 cm) tall. The triangular, toothed leaves are thinner than spinach, very nutritious, and high in vitamins. This plant is also grown for the small, mildly sweet, strawberry-like fruits at each leaf axil. It can re-seed vigorously and become invasive.

Edible Celosia, Celosia argentea comes from tropical Africa, where the fresh young leaves are used in a dish of various vegetable greens, combined with onion, hot peppers, eggplant, vegetable oil, and fish or meat. Peanut butter may be added as a thickener. The ingredients are boiled together into a tasty and nutritious soup. Ira Wallace at Southern Exposure Seed Exchange reports that in their trial in Virginia it didn’t suffer from a single pest attack.

Next month I’ll tell you about some more hot weather greens.

Hoophouse Squash Variety Trial, Garlic Recap, Flowers for Organic IPM

Golden Glory Squash in our hoophouse in mid-June.
Photo Pam Dawling

Hoophouse Squash Variety Trial

A month ago I wrote about our hoophouse squash variety trials for pollination issues and blossom end rot. I think our problem was mostly unpollinated squash, rather than blossom end rot. Go to last month’s post for valuable links to distinguish the two conditions.

We planted 15 Golden Glory zucchini (good at setting fruit without pollinators) along with 25 Gentry yellow squash (a favorite variety, except that we had pollination troubles with it in our hoophouse for several years). The trial is almost over, we’re about to pull those plants, and we have plenty of squash coming in from our outdoor plantings now. The first outdoor planting includes some Golden Glory too, so if I have more news I write about it when it happens.

Gentry yellow squash in our hoophouse in mid-June
photo Pam Dawling

As I said last time, I recorded the number of small rotting squash we removed. The Golden Glory produced far fewer rotten unpollinated fruit.

Date 15 Golden Glory plants: rotted fruit Golden Glory: rotted fruit per plant 25 Gentry plants:

rotted fruit

Gentry:

rotted fruit per plant

5/13 2 0.13 12 0.48
5/14 2 0.13 5 0.2
5/17 0 0 32 1.28
5/21 15 1 54 2.16
5/27 9 0.6 39 1.56
6/4 13 0.9 29 1.2
6/10 2 0.13 11 0.46
6/14 2 0.13 9 0.43
Average per plant   0.38   0.97

 But low numbers of rotted fruits is not the only goal! Yield is important too, and the healthiness of the plants (which relates to yield).

We noticed that the plants were starting to die, and we thought of bacterial wilt. But when I tried the test for that disease, the results were negative. The test is to cut through the plant stem, rub the cut ends together, then slowly separate them. If the plant has bacterial wilt, there will be bacterial slime in strings between the stem ends when you slowly draw them apart. We got nothing like that. More research needed!

We pulled the dying squash, put them in a black trash bag and set that in the sun to cook.

Diseased squash, mid-June.
Photo Pam Dawling

Here’s what we found:

Date 15 Golden Glory plants: Number of healthy plants Golden Glory: Percentage of plants healthy 25 Gentry plants:

Number of healthy plants

Gentry:

Percentage of plants healthy

6/4 15 100% 25 100%
6/10 15 100% 24 96%
6/14 15 100% 21 84%
6/18 10 67% 20 80%
6/24 6 40% 18 72%

Initially, the Gentry started to keel over, then suddenly the Golden Glorys weren’t so glorious!

As far as yield, we did not measure it much. We only have notes from one day, 6/10. We harvested 7 squash from 15 Golden Glory plants (47%) and 14 Gentry from 24 plants (60%). Different people harvested on different days, meaning sometimes they were picked bigger than on other days. My sense is that the Golden Glory were not as productive throughout their harvest period. They are beautiful, the plants are open, easier to harvest from, and we had fewer rotten squash, and initially fewer dying plants. Is this enough to recommend them for an early hoophouse crop in future years?

My inclination is to also try another variety that is rated well for setting fruit without pollinators (hence fewer tiny rotting squash) and try harder to also record yield as well as problems next year!

—————————————————–

Garlic Recap

Our garlic is at the “Trim and Sort” stage, but depending where you garden, yours may be at a completely different stage. See my blogposts from the previous year, when I posted my Alliums for the Month Series.

Trimming garlic stems.
Photo by Brittany Lewis

—————————————————–

For people in colder climates than Virginia, you may be just starting to harvest your garlic. Learn from Margaret Roach (who grows in Massachusetts) in A Way to Garden

—————————————————–

Here are a couple of allium resources that didn’t make it into the Alliums for the Month Series

Mulching alliums

The Nordells on mulching alliums

RAMPS

Barry Glick sells ramps

“The Cat Is Out Of The Bag”!!!
Sunshine Farm & Gardens
696 Glicks Road
Renick WV 24966 USA

Ramps plants.
Photo Sunshine Farm and Gardens

—————————————————–

Flowers for Organic IPM

This is my post on the Mother Earth News Organic Gardening Blog

Organic Integrated Pest Management involves tackling pest problems one step at a time with ecologically-based practices, starting with reducing the chances of the pest ever getting a grip on your crops. Follow prevention with avoidance, and finish with pest-killing if needed. I recommend the ATTRA online publication Organic Integrated Pest Management. Each  page is a poster, complete with good photos and concise clear info.

In May we transplant flowers in our vegetable garden to attract pollinators and pest predators. We like a combination of sunflowers, dill, borage, cosmos, calendula, tithonia (Mexican sunflowers), zinnias. See my earlier Mother Earth News post Insectaries: Grow Flowers to Attract Beneficial Insects

We sow sunflowers about every 10ft (3 m) in each of our bean beds. We are growing sesame surrounded by French marigolds in our hoophouse to deter nematodes, which we have in parts of our hoophouse soil. Sesame is apparently particularly good in deterring root knot nematodes, the type we have.

French marigolds and sesame to deter Root Knot nematodes in our hoophouse.
Photo Pam Dawling