Cicadas – the real story for Virginia

Top: Annual cicada. Credit Bugwood.
Bottom: Periodical Cicada. Credit Eric Day

Cicadas

Despite hype, cicada double-brood emergence won’t affect Virginia, Virginia Tech expert says

https://news.vt.edu/articles/2024/03/ext-cicada-double-brood-emergence-wont-affect-virginia.html

There are annual (“dog-day”) cicadas that emerge every year. Annual cicadas have black-green coloring, while periodical cicadas have black-red-orange coloring.

Annual cicadas, although noisy and large, are not at all dangerous to people. In fact, they are edible, but I do recommend removing the wings and legs first, otherwise it’s too much like eating crunchy food wrappers. Well, I suppose it is eating crunchy food wrappers! The flavor is mild, and the texture creamy.

Annual cicadas can damage young trees, because the females make slits in the bark of pencil-thickness twigs to lay their eggs. The overall effect is like pruning back the twigs about a foot. Not a problem on a big tree, but to be avoided on young trees if possible.

How do you protect young trees from cicadas? Cicadas emerge from the ground in a pupal shell, which they climb out of when they’re ready, splitting the top of the skin. You may have seen these cast shells still gripping on to siding or boards or other things that could be mistaken for a tree. Before too many emerge, cover your vulnerable new saplings with netting, or fabric. If you are a gardener, you may have rowcover or insect netting that will be perfect. If not, you may have old bedsheets or nylon net curtains. Keep the plants covered until no more cicadas are emerging. Cicadas die after laying eggs (I wonder when the males die?)

If you get the chance, stop and watch as an adult cicada emerges from its nymph shell. At first the wings will be crumpled and bright pink. Gradually they will stretch out and dry. Here’s a great little time lapse video of the process. In real life, it takes a bit longer! Note that it is the adult emerging from the nymph, not the nymph emerging.

The hype this year has been about the periodical cicadas. In particular, doomsayers have been trying to panic us into thinking we are all going to be battling a combination of the 13-year cicada and the 17-year cicada in some places. Mostly it’s not true.

Doug Pfeiffer, professor and Extension specialist in the Department of Entomology of Virginia Tech. explains “They have evolved this strategy of emerging all at once in order to overwhelm predators, a defense strategy called predator satiation.

“Periodical cicadas emerge after either 13 or 17 years, both prime numbers,” said Pfeiffer. “That is an adaptation to avoid predators who might develop a converging lifecycle and emerge to eat them.”

Each type of cicada exists as several Broods. Blacksburg, home of Virginia Tech, is on the very edge of the range of Brood XIX (19), a population of 13-year periodical cicadas produced from eggs laid in 2011, resting underground since then. Virginians living south of Caroline County and east of the Interstate 95 are probably seeing and hearing Brood XIX by now. Virginians living along the North Carolina border, especially those in Brunswick County, should also be on the lookout. See the map from Virginia Tech.

Virginia map showing likelihood of finding periodical cicadas in each county. Credit Virginia Tech Extension Service

People in the red zone will get no periodical cicadas. People in the bright green zones will probably get them. Other Virginians are in the maybe zones.

And the scary double-brood? A brood of 17-year cicadas (Brood XII) will also emerge in2024 – in Illinois! Very little geographical overlap!

When it is all over, the dead cicadas lie on the soil, feeding it as they decompose. The eggs hatch into tiny wingless nymphs, which walk down the tree and bury themselves in the ground, sheltering until it’s time to go above ground again, eating nutrients from plant roots.

Here’s a chart of when you can expect periodical cicadas in your neck of the Virginia woods:

Chart of cicada broods in Virginia

We are home to the 17 year brood II, last heard here in 2013. due back in 2030.

And here’s a map

East Coast cicada dates

Planting leeks, Growing for Market melon article, different weather

Planting leeks has been one of our main jobs this week. Two beds finished, three to go. When I wrote about this last year, I said we were trying leek seedlings in flats (rather than bare-root from an outdoor seedbed) for the second year, and doing the transplanting 2-3 weeks earlier than with our outdoor seedbed method, from the same sowing dates.

Leek planting diagram. Pam Dawling

Leek planting diagram.
Pam Dawling

This year we again used flats, and I think this will be the way of the future for us. It is easier to keep weeds at bay in flats than outdoors. We’ve cut back from 20 flats to 15, for the same number of beds, and still have plenty of plants. Next year, perhaps a further cut.

But I’m a bit unhappy with the root damage that occurs in getting the close-planted seedlings out of the flats. I know some growers trim leek roots before planting, but we never have. Extricating them from flats does produce a root-pruning of a sort. Last year’s leeks grew well, so I think I can ease back on worrying! Some growers use plug flats, but I can’t imagine having enough coldframe space for 5 beds x 4 rows x 90ft x 2 (6″ spacing) seedlings. 3600 plugs. Plus up to 10% spare to allow for non-germinating seeds, and for selecting the strongest.

A bed of overwintered leeks Photo credit Twin Oaks Community
A bed of overwintered leeks
Photo credit Twin Oaks Community

In 2013, I wrote about calculating the seed-row length for outdoor seed beds, and about using flats for the first time. We sowed 20 flats 12″ x 24″ with 6 rows in each. We found we had more plants than we needed, and we didn’t need the back-up sowing in April at all. We were still transplanting on June 20 that year.

In 2012, I introduced our furrow and dibbled holes system for leeks. I notice I said we were growing five varieties: fast-growing Lincoln and King Richard for eating in October and November, King Sieg for December, and the hardy Tadorna for December to February. I count that as four, not five, so I wonder about the fifth. We were still transplanting leeks on June 28, because the March 21 sowing got over-run by weeds, and we used our back-up April 20 sowing.


 

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The June/July issue of Growing for Market is out, including my article about growing muskmelons aka cantaloupes. I was surprised to find I had never written about growing melons for Growing for market previously. There’s a chapter in my book, of course. Melons are one of my favorite fruits, and I enjoy even looking forward to them! I wrote about the different types of melons and why the ones we call cantaloupes are actually muskmelons; how to start the seeds; transplanting and direct sowing; keeping the bugs off and harvesting. There are also lists of pests diseases you hope not to get, and some handy resources.

I wrote a complementary post for Mother Earth News Organic Gardening Blog about personal size melons, something we are trying again this year.

Kansas Melon. Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
Kansas Melon.
Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange

In this issue, you can also read the cover story by Emily Oakley and Mike Appel of Three Springs Farm in eastern Oklahoma, about having small children while farming. Worth learning from others’ experience before launching into that project! Periodical cicadas are the subject of Lynn Byczynski‘s editorial. They were here on our farm in 2013.

Regina Dlugokencky of Seedsower Farm in Centerport, New York writes about a new organic farming opportunity: the supply of organic mulching materials from the current proliferation of microbreweries. She has had success using Spent Brewers Grains (SBG) on Long Island. One micro-brewer can produce 220 pounds of SBG per working day. Read the complete report at www.sare.org – search for Project Number FNE12-743.

There’s also an article about two electronic record-keeping systems you can use on your smart phone, if you have one. COG Pro (use the word Guest as username and password) and FARMDATA. Next up is an article about a small flower farm in County Cork, Ireland. Gretel Adams closes with an article about flower photography to increase sales.


Chitting seed potatoes ready for planting. Credit Kati Folger
Chitting seed potatoes ready for planting.
Credit Kati Folger

And lastly, the weather. After days without rain, with forecasts including “chance of thunderstorms” that went everywhere but here, we finally are getting some rain. Hoeing is out, transplanting is in, as is setting seed potatoes to sprout for our second planting, in a couple of weeks.

For weather-entertainment from the safety of your own desk, check out LightningMaps.org. Real time lightning. Of course, if the lightning is close, you might  close down your computer and not get zapped.

 

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